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L’unita, End of a Brilliant Dream

Balatarin

 


At last, after 90 years of struggles for human rights and labor class needs, L’unita, which was once the central organ of the mighty Italian Communist Party (ICP), has ended its publication.

 

As the Independent and CNN reported, this news was not unpredictable. The famous leftist newspaper breath as a sick man laid on the death bed was numbered from April 2014. In the aftermath of WWII its circulation was as high as a few hundred thousand, published in different Italian cities. At the end its distribution reached only 20 or so thousand.

 

L'unita is part of Italian history. In the classic film "Rome: Open City" a member of Italian Communist Party collaborates with a priest against Nazi occupation. In a very dramatic scene of the movie a copy of L'unita is in the hand of ICP cadre.

 

The right wing of the Italian political platform breathes a sigh of relief after hearing of the death of L’unita, but for the ex- Marxists it was a real dose of nostalgia. The literature used by L'unita was exactly the language used by the Iranian leftist press in the 1950s.

 

Here is an excerpt of an article printed in L'unita on March 7, 1953, on the occasion of Stalin's Death:

 

“Gloria Eternal a Giuseppe Stalin!

 

Fellow citizens, comrades!

 

A grave, irreparable disaster has struck us all. Joseph Stalin, the man upon whom millions of Italian workers, peasants, and intellectuals looked with trust and affection as their leader and their hope, is dead. Our sorrow is deep. The powerful of the earth bowed before Stalin’s immortal genius. People cry for him as they'd cry for the loss of a father.

 

Stalin is the man who, more than anyone, worked and fought to break the chains of exploitation and oppression. It was to this cause that He dedicated His entire heroic existence."

 

Nowadays we know most of the exceprt above to be wrong and pure propaganda, but it was part of our generation around world.

 

Although L'unita has died, the ideals for which it stood will live forever. From now on the Euro communism has also joined the history. The Italian Communist party was one of the prominent and most distinguished parties in the World; a party that rejected the grasp of power by any violent means and tools. Antonio Gramsci, the founder of L’unita in 1924, was the preacher and advocate of arriving to power for the communist party via a ballot and democratic means.

 

The end of L’unita is likely being lost in the headlines, which are mostly dominated by the Gaza massacre these days, but the impact of this newspaper on Italian society and western culture is undeniable.

 

As nostalgia of those days, below are the last slogans published in L’unita for the occasion of Josef Stalin's (Soviet Dictator) death on March 7, 1953:

 

"These days it looks mere rhetoric and ridicules but 61 years ago, absorbed the folks and even caused them to cry!!

 

Eternal glory to Joseph Stalin!

Long Live the Communist party of the Soviet Union!

Long live the Italian Communist party!

Long live the indestructible friendship of the Italian and Soviet peoples!"

 

 

 

Balatarin

cyrous moradi @cyrousmoradi

I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!

Tehran , Iran

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HoshangTarehgol5

Hoshang Tarehgol An injury to one is an injury to all.

It's interesting you mentioned Gramsci, for Gramsci was very much on the critical side on Stalin, and wasn't happy about lack of a discussion, and free expression in Moscow, but he was imprisoned by Mussolini in 1929 and wasn't able to have any impact of that front.

Gramsci's ideas for attainment of political power involves a lot more than just ballot boxes; in what he elucidates as war of positions and war of maneuver, working class establishes its own autonomous institutions of civil society, thus wining the battle for democracy within civil society. It would be helpful to also keep in mind the specific context of 1920's in Italian society. This was a decade which started with workers taking over Auto factories and such and establishing their own councils to run those factries, but it ended with Fascists firmly in power.

Once again on the Organic Capacities of the Working Class
http://marxism.halkcephesi.net/Antonio%20Gramsci/1926/10/organic_capabilities.htm

cyrousmoradi

cyrous moradi I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!

Gramsci died on 1937. In the 5th March of 1953 when Stalin died The Communist Block in the World had integrity and Stalin was popular. Any way In 1956 and in the 20th congress of Soviet Communist Party just a few small aspects of Stalin criminal behaviour was announced.

In the Tudeh Party newspapers of Esfand 1331 , alot of Tehran elegants women were crying in the Fouzieh Square for Stalin !!!!

HoshangTarehgol5

Hoshang Tarehgol An injury to one is an injury to all.

Gramsci had spent the last eight years of his life in Mussolini's prison, and wrote his masterpiece "The Prison Notebooks" while incarcerated and watched by jail censurers. Although Stalinists betrayed the working class movement, Italian Left after Gramsci continues to thrive to this very day. The Autonomia movement of 1960's was a big boost to Italian Left, some people like Toni Negri are still around and been active since then.

Stalinist used to be a persistent problem mainly due to the existence of USSR, but once their source is gone Stalinists are facing very different circumstances. They have as much a political future in Iran as Ghajars and pahlavis, practically zero.

cyrousmoradi

cyrous moradi I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!

Antonio Gramsci was really an Avant Guard Politician. His contribution to the human faced Communism is huge.
Anyway in that time still the folks around world had no ideas about Stalin's criminal acts. see this picture in tehran Esfand 1331 for Stalin expired memorandom !!

HoshangTarehgol5

Hoshang Tarehgol An injury to one is an injury to all.

This doesn't sound good but I really can't stop laughing. Just the image of all these distraught ladies with shades and napkins in their hands,... it has a unique combination of being simultaneously absurd and vile.

On the other hand in the tradition of Italian Left there has always been a cast of pioneers and original thinkers; starting from Labriola in late 1800, then there's Gramsci who himself was also surrounded by a community of other bright writers like Palmiro Togliatti, Amadeo Bordiga,...
In the 60's they had movements like Autonomia and Potere Operaio (Workers' Power). This pioneering political culture of Italian Left continues to this day, in different shapes and forms.

cyrousmoradi

cyrous moradi I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!

I agree with you that the contribution of Italian communists think thanks was much better than French or even Germans. Unfortunatly Iranian in Iran we did not have so called renegade communists , but may be one.

We had someone pioneer. Dr. Isac ( Eshagh) Aprime. He was well educated man belonged to Oxford school of Communists ( 1930s) He was member of Centeral commitee of Iran Tudeh Party. He always questioned the obidience of the Tudeh party toward Moscow. after the events of 1946 in AzerBaihan and Kurdistan , He critised than centeral commitee members , He expelled from Party. Probably he was the very first communist questioned the stance of Stalin. In 1946 he had great gut

HoshangTarehgol5

Hoshang Tarehgol An injury to one is an injury to all.

1900, Novecento- Bernardo Bertolucci



A chronicle of the lives of two men during the political turmoils that took place in Italy in the first half of the 20th century.

HoshangTarehgol5

Hoshang Tarehgol An injury to one is an injury to all.

Actually the panorama of Leftist thoughts in both Italy and Iran is much larger than it seems. Italian Socialists and Anarchists have also had considerable significance and contributions, not just the communists, Gramsci himself began as a socialist and then changes to communist. The Italian Left movements of 60's were largely anti-authoritarian movement. Some of them like Potere Operaio (Workers' Power) simply referred to themselves as "Workerists."

In Iran we had the very first Iranian Communist Party established in Anzali 1920. One of the leaders in that party Avitz Soltanzadeh was a world level theoretician and political-economist, having debates with Bukharin and serving as the head of USSR's Central Bank. He was killed during Stalin's purges.
Another good example of an independent Iranian socialist is Khalil Maleki.
Last but not least the current CPI has published a multi volume study of Post Revolutionary societies, and to a large extent correctly predicted the demise of USSR. CPI continues to educate its membership and supporters in the most contemporary issues of 21 century.

cyrousmoradi

cyrous moradi I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!


Dr. Eshagh Aprime ( 1918-1998)
He questioned Stalin on 1946.

maziar58

maziar 58 Maziar

Thanks mr Moradi
Maybe I meant the PCI lost it's leading seat
But I still long for Italians energy and involvement in their daily affairs be it religion or politic from all walks of life
Miss their intellectual verbal fights or conversation
I am with no political party but I do agree and believe that attachment of Iranian to the uncle Joseph was a birth for a lot more educated class of Iranian
Personally not sharing their recipe for Iran .

maziar58

maziar 58 Maziar

Thanks Mr moradi
Just a short reminders that all political parties are corrupt
As I remember the 80's that I use to live there
The PCI an strong and popolus party with over 13million adult members were leading all other groups in the coming election
And the question was if for real our election are
13 million votes can get the next coming government
All of a sudden the Right and churches start publishing
About the wealth and assets of Mr Enrico Berliguer the head of PCI and all of a sudden he resigned and democrat Christians leading the votes.
And that is Italy as usual and still corrupt.

cyrousmoradi

cyrous moradi I am interested in Mathematics , literature and International relations. I wish to publish my stories . No publisher dares to do so. I think they have good reasons !! No body waste time and money to buy and read my books !!!!

Thanks Maziar
As I know he was the Scretary - General Of Italian Communist party until his death on 11th June 1984. He never resigned.
His contribution to Italian politics is remarkable, Indeed.