SPRING (in Persian: Bahaar), published by Etesamolmolk in 1920 to which poetess Parvin Etessami, the daughter of the publisher, contributed regularly. SPRING was actually a main vehicle for the promotion of Parvin’s literary talent in a male dominant society. Those two magazines could not survive long and they were closed after a short time. Both FACULTY and SPRING as other publications called [magazines] contained articles on popular topics of interest to the general public and were written at the reading level of most of the population. A gap in the market of an academic periodical featuring scholarly articles on literature, history, geography (written in a more sophisticated register) was filled when in 1946 Abbas Eghbal Ashtiaani (AEA) published the Journal of SOUVENIR, in Persian: Majaleh-e-Yadegaar (MEY), which was in fact the first Iranian Journal of Culture.