We remember him best for proving that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, but Pythagoras of Samos was also an Ionian Greek philosopher and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism the ideals of which had far reaching influences on such idealogies as communism or socialism in the centuries to come.
No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived, although forgeries under his name — a few of which remain extant — did circulate in antiquity. Critical ancient sources like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt on these writings. Ancient Pythagoreans usually quoted their master’s doctrines with the phrase autos ephe (“he himself said”) — emphasizing the essentially oral nature of his teaching.
According to Aristotle Metaphysics 1-5 , cc. 350 BC:
“The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things.”
Pythagoras: How to measure beauty – The Human Face:
Comedian John Cleese and model and actress Liz Hurley investigate how mathematics can reflect our perception of beauty. Includes some great tests that you can try out yourself! Do parts of your body divide into the ratio 1 to 1.618? Fascinating short video from BBC science show ‘The Human Face’.