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Notes to

Truth & justice
Interview with Arash Forouhar

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(1) I wish to thank Ms. Fariba Amini and Dr. Bahram Bahramian of the Alliance for the Defense of Human Rights in Iran (ADHRI) as well as Mr. Karimkhani, all of whom helped me to arrange this interview on 3 February 1999. My deepest gratitude goes to Arash Forouhar who epitomizes grace under pressure.

(2) Chehl-hom derives from the Persian word for the number "forty" -- chehl. In the Shi`a tradition, family members and friends gather on the fortieth day after a person's death to commemorate the loss.

(3) Daryoush Forouhar founded the Iran Nation Party during the late 1940s. The party initially espoused a pan-Iranist ideology but became more mainstream in its orientation, joining the pro-Mossadegh National Front. The party's membership was consistently limited to a few hundred intellectuals during the Shah's rule. Since the Islamic Republic's inception, the Iran Nation Party was illegal but tolerated, with some intellectuals perceiving it as a symbol of a bygone era of secular Persian nationalism. However, the Forouhars' reputation transcended the party they had created, as they criticized the Islamic Republic's mistreatment of secularists and economic mismanagement.

(4) On 20 July 1988, Ayatollah Khomeini delivered the famous speech in which he lamented that accepting the UN-sponsored ceasefire resolution 598 was "...more lethal for me than poison." See "Khomeyni Message on Hajj, UN Resolution 598," Foreign Broadcast Information Service -- Near East & South Asia (21 July 1988), 50.

(5) On 10 April 1997, a German court convicted five men, four Lebanese and one Iranian, for the September 1992 killings of three leaders of Iran's Kurdish Democratic Party and an interpreter at Greek restaurant in Berlin called Mykonos. The court ruled that the Islamic Republic's clerical leadership had ordered these murders through its Committee for Special Operations. This ruling aggravated the Islamic Republic's economic woes and international isolation, as the European Union withdrew its trade representative from Iran and condemned the clerics' use of extra-territorial murder as an instrument of policy.

(6) The Islamic Republic has rejected the request by Maurice Danby Copithorne, Special Representative of the UN Commission on Human Rights, to visit Iran and investigate of the Forouhars' and other murders.

(7) Here, Forouhar refers to the US- and British-sponsored military coup d'etat of August 1953 that toppled Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh and reinstated the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Iranians of various political beliefs insist that this event, perhaps more than any other, inspired anti-American as well as anti-Pahlavi sentiment and, thus, led to the revolution of 1978-79.

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