Iranian contributions to civilization of man!


Iranian contributions to civilization of man!
by Iqbal Latif

Iranian contributions to civilization of man

With us ther was a Doctour of Phisyk
In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk
To speke of phisik and surgerye, . . .
Wel knew he the olde Esculapius,
And Deiscorides, and eek Rufus,
Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien,
Serapion, Razis, and Avicen

I have started with Geoffrey Chaucer who wrote in his prologue to the Canterbury Tales, and named the great physicians of the past that his 14th-century audience could be expected to recognize Esculapius, Deiscorides, Rufus, Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien. Chaucer then goes on to name physicians from the medieval world of Middle East Ibn Sarabiyun or Serapion; `Razis' the great clinician of the early 10th century; `Avicen', or Avicenna referring to Ibn Sina whose early 11th-century medical encyclopedia was as important in Europe as it was in the Middle East.

And this is one reason why 'Great civilisations' should not be subject to ruthless obliteration or bombed they are rich part of our human heritage! You don't kill a man who has cancer you take the cancer out, the cancerous growth of dogma under mullahcracy is one problem but to address it by bombing Iran is absurd.Âbâd bâd Iran va shad bâd Irani!

Ibn Khaldun emphasized the crucial role of the Iranians in promoting learning, sciences, arts, architecture, and medicine in Islamic civilization. According to Dr. Kaveh Farrokh 'It was pan-Arabists such as Sami Shawkat who insisted that history books such as those by Ibn Khaldun be destroyed or re-written to remove all references of Iranian contributions to Islamic civilization. The former Baathist regime in Iraq promoted such policies and even worked alongside numerous lobbies to promote historical revisionism at the international level.' He writes in The Muqaddimah Translated by F. Rosenthal (III, pp. 311-15, 271-4 [Arabic]; R.N. Frye (p.91):

“… It is a remarkable fact that, with few exceptions, most Muslim scholars…in the intellectual sciences have been non-Arabs…thus the founders of grammar were Sibawaih and after him, al-Farisi and Az-Zajjaj. All of them were of Persian descent…they invented rules of (Arabic) grammar…great jurists were Persians… only the Persians engaged in the task of preserving knowledge and writing systematic scholarly works. Thus the truth of the statement of the prophet becomes apparent, ‘If learning were suspended in the highest parts of heaven the Persians would attain it” … The intellectual sciences were also the preserve of the Persians, left alone by the Arabs, who did not cultivate them…as was the case with all crafts…This situation continued in the cities as long as the Persians and Persian countries, Iraq, Khorasan and Transoxiana (modern Central Asia), retained their sedentary culture.”

Dr. Kaveh Farrokh says that ‘Iraq’ actually means. ‘Iraq’ is derived from Middle Persian or dialectical Pahlavi; it means ‘the lowlands’, like the Germanic term “Niederland” for modern day Holland. There is a region in Iran today which shares the same Pahlavi root as ‘Iraq’ – modern day Arak. The term ‘Baghdad’ is also of Iranian origin – “Boghu” (God) + “dad”(provided by, given by, bestowed by) – “Baghdad” is rough Iranian equivalent of the term “Godiva“. The remains of the capital of the Sassanian Empire, Ctesiphon, stand only 40 kilometers from modern Baghdad. If you have a look at the remains of the Archway of Khosrow located just forty kilometers from Baghdad in Iraq. The term “Baghdad” is old Persian for “Bestowed by God” or “Godiva”.

A hospital was called a bimaristan, often contracted to maristan, from the Persian word bimar, `ill person', and stan, `place.'The earliest documented hospital established by a ruler was built in the 9th century in Baghdad probably by the vizier to the caliph Harun al-Rashid. There is no evidence to associate the construction of the earliest hospital with any of the Christian physicians from Gondeshapur in southwest Iran, but the prominence of the Bakhtishu` family as court physicians would suggest that they also played an important role in the function of the first hospital in Baghdad.

Verses upon the death in Baghdad of the physician Yuhanna ibn Masawayh in 857 (243 H):

The physician, with his medical art and his drugs,
Cannot avert a summons that has come,
What ails the physician that he dies of the disease
That he would have cured in time gone by?
There died alike he who administered the drug and he who took it,
And he who imported and sold the drug, and he who bought it.

Latin translations of these practices provided late medieval Europe with ideas and practices from which early modern medicine eventually arose from Greek medical teaching and medical literature of the 9th to 12th century professionally practiced by `Razis' and Ibn Sina .

Iranian scholars of the Islamic era are: Zakaria Razi “Rhazes” (860- 923 or 932, born in Rayy, near Tehran), Abu Ali Sina “Avecenna” (980 -1037, born in Afshana, near Bukhara, ancient Samanid Capital), Abu Rayhan Biruni (973 – 1043, born in Khiva, Ancient Khwarazm now modern Afghanistan), Omar Khayyam (1044-1123, born in Nishabur, Khorasan), Mohammad Khwarazmi (d. 844, born in Khiva, Ancient Khwarazm, now in Modern Afghanistan). Not a single one of these scientists hailed from an Arab-speaking region, all were born in what is now Iran or the former realms of Persian speaking world. (source:wiki)

One of the greatest names in medieval medicine is that of Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya' al-Razi, who was born in the Iranian City of Rayy in 865 (251 H) and died in the same town about 925 (312 H).

`Adudi hospital was founded in 980 (370 H), more than 50 years after al-Razi died, it must be an earlier hospital, probably the one founded during the reign of al-Mu`tadid (ruled 892-902/279-289 H), which he helped locate and of which he was later director.

The most sought after of all his compositions was The Comprehensive Book on Medicine (Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb) -- a large private notebook or commonplace book into which he placed extracts from earlier authors regarding diseases and therapy and also recorded clinical cases of his own experience.

Following al-Razi's death, Ibn al-`Amid, a statesman and scholar appointed vizier to the Persian ruler Rukn al-Dawlah in 939 (327 H), happened to be in the town of Rayy and purchased from al-Razi's sister the notes comprising the Hawi, or Comprehensive Book. He then arranged for the pupils of al-Razi to put the notes in order and make them available.

`Ali ibn al-`Abbas al-Majusi (d. 994/384 H) was born into a Zoroastrian family from the Iranian city of Ahwaz about the time of al-Razi's death. Al-Majusi practiced medicine in Baghdad and served as physician to the ruler `Adud al-Dawlah, founder of the `Adudi hospital in Baghdad. It was to him that al-Majusi dedicated his only treatise, The Complete Book of the Medical Art (Kitab Kamil al-sina`ah al-tibbiyah), also called The Royal Book (al-Kitab al-Malaki). It is one of the most comprehensive and well-organized compendia in early medical literature. In Europe the treatise was known as Liber regius or Pantegni and the author as Haly Abbas.(source:wiki)

Al-Majusi began his influential Arabic encyclopedia with a critical survey of his sources, which included Hippocrates and Galen as well as al-Razi. While commending al-Razi's medical epitome dedicated to Mansur, al-Majusi criticized the Comprehensive Book on Medicine, the Hawi, for being too long (the modern printed version is incomplete at 23 volumes) and not well organized, since it had been intended as an aide-memoire and general medical record for al-Razi's own private use. Al-Majusi stated that the Hawi was so enormous that few could afford copies of it, and that in fact he knew of only two people who owned a copy, "both of whom were people of culture, learning, and wealth."

Of all physicians, the best known name is that of Abu `Ali al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah ibn Sina, known to Europe as Avicenna. He was born in 980 (370 H) in Central Asia and traveled widely in the eastern Islamic lands, composing nearly 270 different treatises. When he died in 1037 (428 H) he was known as one of the greatest philosophers in Islam, and in medicine was so highly regarded that he was compared to Galen.

Ibn Sina's magnum opus by which he was known East and West is the Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb or Canon of Medicine. It was composed over a lengthy period of time as he moved westward from Gurgan, in northern Iran, where it was begun, to Rayy and then to Hamadan even further southwest, where he completed it. The large comprehensive Arabic encyclopedia rivaled the popularity of al-Majusi's compendium and in many quarters surpassed it. (source:wiki)

To expound it further lets read Ali Jafarey who writes ''

''In its thousand years of supremacy, Pârsi has shaped one of the most excellent and premium creative writing from the ‘a’ of ‘anatomy’ to the ‘z’ of ‘zoology’ on animals, art, architecture, astrology, astronomy, drama, food, games, geography, government, history, humor, literature, magic, medicine, music, religion (Zoroastrian, Manichaeism, Mazdak Movement, Islam, Sufism, Christianity and Baha’ism), science, ‘translation and commentary’ (from Arabic,Greek, Pahlavi, Sanskrit, Turkish and other languages into Pârsi), and other fields of the human life. Phonetically, it sounds sweet to ears. Its articulated vowels make it much less guttural. Its poetry is, perhaps, the richest in language, expression, inspiration, narration, rhyme, tune, length, height and depth in the world languages.

Well-known Pârsi authors, numbering around 400 persons, are not only writers, generally prolific, but simultaneously a combination of two or more as architects, artisans, astronomers, chemists, court flatterers, ecologists, fictionists, geographers, historians, linguists, litterateurs, mathematicians, musicians, mystics, philosophers, physicians, poets, politicians, rulers, scientists, teachers, technologists, theologians and zoologists.Among those known better in the Western World are: Abhari (Asir al-Din Abhari), Alpharabus (Abu Nasr Farabi), Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina), Biruni (Abu Reihan Biruni), Ferdowsi (Abol Ghassem Ferdowsi Tusi), Geber (Jaber Ibn Hayyan), Hafez (Khajeh Shams al-Din Hafez-e Shirazi), Haravi (Abu Mansur Movaffaq Heravi), Kashi (Ghyas al-Din Jamshid Kashi), Kharazmi (Mohammad Kharazmi), Khayyam (Omar Khayyam Nishapuri), Rhazes (Zakariya Razi), Rumi (Mowlana Jal al-Din Mohammad Balkhi), and Sa’di ( Sheikh Sharaf al-Din Mosleh Shirazi). Its Shâhnâmeh, the Book of Kings, composed 1,000 years ago by Ferdowsi Tusi, is unique in the World Literature. Consisting of 60,000 couplets, it begins in the name of ‘God of Life and Wisdom’, Who is higher than human conception and Who created the Universe and maintains and guides it. It praises Wisdom as the best Gift of God to humanity. God created the earth along with fire, air and water, and then the plants and animals. Mankind appeared in an erect posture. The human history begins from the days of cave-dwelling, vegetarian food, scanty covering and stone implements, through the discovery of kindling fire, turning to the ‘devilish’ meat eating, animal domestication, architecture, dress making, metal implements, medicine, commerce and navigation, to the invasion of Iran by the Arab Muslims and the end of the Sassanian Empire. That is where the Shahnameh ends. As a nationalist, Ferdowsi did not want to continue the History of Iran under alien occupation. ''


more from Iqbal Latif

Cyrus the "Great" Died in Battle

by JahanKhalili on

What kind of respecter of human rights goes out to kill and conquer others?


Shirin Ebadi was wrong

by JahanKhalili on

There was no such thing in the cylinder. The cylinder isn't a charter of anything, and it has nothing to do with human rights, either.



by JahanKhalili on

The actual translation of the cylinder is here.

I see you didn't bother to read my blog. It was in there.


Iqbal Latif

Ms. Shirin Ebadi made it up!! You are wrong..

by Iqbal Latif on

 In her acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize, Dr.Shirin Ebadi evoked Cyrus, saying:  ‘I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2,500 years ago that he 'would not reign over the people if they did not wish it.  He promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should be studied in the history of human rights.’

This is the source from where she picked up.. 


The Cylinder of Cyrus the Great - The First Declaration of Human Rights

"I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, the son of Cambyses, great king, king of Ansan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Ansan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Ansan, of an eternal line of kingship, whose rule Bêl and Nabu love, whose kingship they desire for their hearts' pleasure."

-- Cyrus the Great as quoted on the Cyrus cylinder (c. 538 B.C) (Source of translation:



Jahan, strangely enough you brought Dr. Ebadi in, I told Dr Ebadi in 2008 that her struggle had rekindled hopes of every frail person in the world that the physical size of a person is not an issue when one takes on demagogues. Rather frailty is an advantage.   







Iqbal Latif

Do you have any specifics about which books those were?

by Iqbal Latif on

Here you go Jahan, these are only few from wiki, you can research and find nearly 4000 more references.
 If you want really to know more read about Golden Age of Persia please go through:
Richard Nelson Frye: Golden Age of Persia.
Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophy known as "Farabism" or "Alfarabism", though it was later overshadowed by Avicennism. Al-Farabi's school of philosophy "breaks with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle moves from metaphysics to methodology, a move that anticipates modernity", and "at the level of philosophy, Alfarabi unites theory and practice in the sphere of the political he liberates practice from theory". His Neoplatonic theology is also more than just metaphysics as rhetoric. In his attempt to think through the nature of a First Cause, Alfarabi discovers the limits of human knowledge."

Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries, and was widely regarded to be second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher") in his time. His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna).

Al-Farabi also wrote a commentary on Aristotle's work, and one of his most notable works is Al-Madina al-Fadila where he theorized an ideal state as in Plato's The Republic.

Al-Farabi wrote: The Necessity of the Art of the Elixir.

Al-Farabi also considered the theories of conditional syllogisms and analogical inference, which were part of the Stoic tradition of logic rather than the Aristotelian. Al-Farabi made to the Aristotelian tradition was his introduction of the concept of poetic syllogism in a commentary on Aristotle's Poetics.

Farabi wrote a book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqa (The Book of Music).

According to Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Mehdi Aminrazavi: the book of Kitab al-Musiqa is in reality a study of the theory of Persian music of his day although in the West it has been introduced as a book on Arab music. He presents philosophical principles about music, its cosmic qualities and its influences. Al-Farabi's treatise Meanings of the Intellect dealt with music therapy, where he discussed the therapeutic effects of music.

Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, which were translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries alone, the Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times.

Khawaja Muammad ibn Muammad ibn asan ūsī Persian 18 February 1201 in ūs, Khorasan – died on 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah, better known as Naīr al-Dīn al-ūsī  polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed.

The scholar Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) considered Tusi to be the greatest of the later Persian scholars.  The Tusi-couple is a mathematical device invented by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle. Rotations of the circles cause a point on the circumference of the smaller circle to oscillate back and forth in linear motion along a diameter of the larger circle. Tusi has about 150 works in Persian and Arabic.
A Treatise on Astrolabe by Tusi, Isfahan 1505
Kitāb al-Shakl al-qattā
ʴ Book on the complete quadrilateral. A five volume summary of trigonometry.
Akhlaq-i-Nasri – A work on ethics.
al-Risalah al-Asturlabiyah – A Treatise on astrolabe.
Zij-i ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables) – A major astronomical treatise, completed in 1272.
sharh al-isharat (Commentary on Avicenna's Isharat)
Awsaf al-Ashraf a short mystical-ethical work in Persian
Tajrid al-Itiqadat (A commentary on Shia doctrines) 

Abu abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari (d. 796 or 806) was a mathematician and astronomer. He is not to be confused with his father Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī, also an astronomer and mathematician who was a Persian. He is credited to have built the first astrolabe.
Kitab nihayat al-sul fi tashih al-usul (The Final Quest Concerning the Rectification of Principles), in which he drastically reformed the Ptolemaic models of the Sun, Moon, and planets, by his introducing his own non-Ptolemaic models which eliminates the epicycle in the solar model, which eliminate the eccentrics and equant by introducing extra epicycles in the planetary models via the Tusi-couple, and which eliminates all eccentrics, epicycles and equant in the lunar model.

Qotb al-Din Shirazi or Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236 – 1311) was a 13th century Persian Muslim polymath and Persian poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

Tarjoma-ye Taḥ

rir-e Oqlides a work on geometry in Persian in fifteen chapters containing mainly the translation of the work Nasir al-Din Tusi, completed in November 1282 and dedicated to Moʿin-al-Din Solaymān Parvāna. Etiārāt-e moaffari It is a treatise on astronomy in Persian in four chapters and extracted from his other work Nehāyat al-edrāk. The work was dedicated to Mozaffar-al-Din Bulaq Arsalan.

The period of assimilation and syncretisation of earlier. Hellenistic, Indian, and Sassanid astronomy.

During this period many Indian and Persian texts were translated into Arabic. The most notable of the texts was Zij al-Sindhind, translated by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari and Yaqub ibn Tariq in 777. The text was translated after an Indian astronomer visited the court of caliph Al-Mansur in 770. Another text translated was the Zij al-Shah, a collection of astronomical tables compiled in Persia over two centuries. Fragments of text during this period indicate that Arabs adopted the sine function (inherited from India) in place of the chords of arc used in Greek trigonometry.
This period of vigorous investigation, in which the superiority of the Ptolemaic system of astronomy was accepted and significant contributions made to it. Astronomical research was greatly supported by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun. Baghdad and Damascus became the centers of such activity. The caliphs not only supported this work financially, but endowed the work with formal prestige.
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, earlier transliterated as Algoritmi or Algaurizin, (c. 780, Khwārizm – c. 850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
The first major Muslim work of astronomy was Zij al-Sindh by al-Khwarizimi in 830.

Al-Khwārizmī's third major work is his Kitāb
ūrat al-Ar  ‘’Book on the appearance of the Earth" or "The image of the Earth" translated as Geography), which was finished in 833. It is a revised and completed version of Ptolemy's Geography, consisting of a list of 2402 coordinates of cities and other geographical features following a general introduction.
In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.

His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. In Renaissance Europe, he was considered the original inventor of algebra, although we now know that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources. He revised Ptolemy's Geography and wrote on astronomy and astrology.
Some words reflect the importance of al-Khwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. "Algebra" is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of his name.

His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.

J. J. O'Conner and E. F. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive:

"Perhaps one of the most significant advances made by Arabic mathematics began at this time with the work of al-Khwarizmi, namely the beginnings of algebra. It is important to understand just how significant this new idea was. It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry. Algebra was a unifying theory which allowed rational numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes, etc., to all be treated as "algebraic objects". It gave mathematics a whole new development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before, and provided a vehicle for future development of the subject. Another important aspect of the introduction of algebraic ideas was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before.’’

Abu Rahyan Biruni, "Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qurun al-Xaliyyah"(Vestiges of the past: the chronology of ancient nations), Tehran, Miras-e-Maktub, 2001.
The Ulugh Beg Observatory is an observatory in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Built in the 1420s by the Timurid astronomer Ulugh Beg, it is considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia before it was destroyed in 1449. Some of the famous Islamic astronomers who worked at the observatory include Al-Kashi, Ali Qushji, and Ulugh Beg himself.



Baldrick jan

by amirkabear4u on

Some of these books I mentioned were writen far before Newton's birth. However they were and still are as important as, for example, Newton's book called "mathematical principles". You can see some of these books in British museum in London.

Answering your next question why? It is because Europeans wanted to know what was writen in them.



by JahanKhalili on

Do you have any specifics about which books those were? 


Yes hirre

by amirkabear4u on

I agree with you but this person, JK, who continuously bragging about why Iranians are not willing to take critisim himself does not agree to ANYTHING.

Yes, things change over time. For example a lot of historic maths and astronomy books published in Iran ended up in the west. How on earth did they get there. Maybe if they were left in their original country we would be better off.

Fairness and Equality in Justice



by hirre on

There are some valid points in JK's arguments, but it is needed to be said that everything changes with time... The middle east you see today will not be the same middle east in 100 years, 200 years and so on. The same is applied to the western countries. The west you see today was not the west you say 100 years ago or 200 years ago... Accept that there is a difference and that cultures and countries are at different development phases. But this also means that there is room for improvement and that countries and cultures can become better and develop themselves! Don't rule out the middle east in the future! Also the old eastern ancient empires are slowly waking up again, China to start with!


Mollah Kosh doesn't know me

by JahanKhalili on

So who cares what he/she thinks about me?



by Mullahkosh on

You don't like the truth like I tell you? what happened to all your grandstanding about telling it like it is? I am telling it like it is bro..get used to facts and truth..truth is bitter and it hurts, and now you are at the end the dish you have been passing out...Accept it, why don't you like legitimate criticism of yourself as a person? are you some grand person who is above criticism? is that the Iranian thing in you that you don't like criticism?


Anger can be useful

by JahanKhalili on

People get angry sometimes for good reason.

If anger were always self-destructive, all those who are capable of it would have been weeded out of the gene pool.

The fact that everyone gets angry over something, shows that anger has a place and is in fact at times necessary. 



by JahanKhalili on

OK, where does this claim about Cyrus come from?

"... he would not reign over the people if they did not wish it... "

That appears to be something that Ms. Shirin Ebadi made up, and it does not appear in the actual translation of Cyrus' cylinder. 

Iqbal Latif

Hi- lets talk facts and figures..

by Iqbal Latif on

Anger is self destructive, we can settle it with
facts..either bring counter facts to what I have quoted or bring a new set of
arguments showing depravity of Iran and Iranians that you suggest. I wish I could
discover. I will love to correct myself.


OK, Mr. Iqbal Latif

by JahanKhalili on

That was interesting. I didn't know that the name "Baghdad" came from Persian.

Thank you for sharing this information. 


Criticism can be useful

by JahanKhalili on

Iranians criticize people all the time. Their society is extremely critical of the individual.

Why can't the society itself be criticized? Is it some kind of stone idol that individuals are forced to sacrifice themselves for? 


The truth is important

by JahanKhalili on

Entertaining oneself is fun, but so what?


Mr. Iqbal Latif

by JahanKhalili on

I think you'll find that the claims about Cyrus the Great aren't true.

He probably never said that.


PS: Shut up, Mollah Kosh. 

Iqbal Latif

A nation ingrained with the

by Iqbal Latif on

A nation ingrained with the utterances of Cyrus the Great, who 2500 years ago said, "... he would not reign over the people if they did not wish it... " and declared that he would not force any person to change his religion or faith.

In very ancient times, it was Iran that taught humanity the interweavements of Law with Science and Religion. Since Zarathushtra, when human awareness was raised into the inviolability of religion and devised into twenty-one Nasks or Holy Books, one third of Zarathushtra works comprised Law, one-third Science, and one-third pure Religion.

Iran can be rightly termed as the cradle of civilization and of being a "Lawgiver"; it has a rich tradition of culture and diversity of thinking. As a region, Iran has given law to the world; laws of the Medes and Persians acquired wide-ranging prominence. Iranian history has a very close relationship to near the beginning when humanity started living as a civilised society.

The first Iranian rulers were lawgivers. Contrast it to today and one sees the 21st century Iran under clergy as the biggest violator of human rights. Its post-revolution decline from bastion and cradle of civilization to the lowest rung of civilized nation's ladder is scandalous and disgusting.

Iran's contributions to codified law, so as to dispense justice, are poignant, evidenced by the extensive corpus of pre-Islamic texts on religious and scientific laws. The ancestors of the Persians, the ancient Zoroastrians, covered texts from the laws applying to soldiers to those on the cultivation of soil. It is perhaps the tragedy that a few 'deranged ideologically motivated' leaders have wasted the histological traditions of Iran in less than three decades, the richness of thousands of years trampled in few years.

To live in peace without coercion is an indispensable human right; terror campaigns violate the sacred trust of 'live and let others live' that has been evolved over millenniums. Law started in Iran in the beginnings of human history, however, this rich inheritance has been wretchedly shattered by the in-attendance clerical tyranny in Tehran.

Although it is generally considered that the most ancient code of laws is understood by Western scholars to be the code of Hammurabi, an ancient king of Babylonia, who ruled about 2100 B.C. Babylonia, the first dignitaries to have rendered extraordinary service in framing and codifying laws was Prince Uruvakhshaya, the brother of the eternal idol Krsaspa (Garshasp) and the son of King Thrita, the vicar of medicine. They were the direct ancestry of Yima, the dazzling antediluvian monarch. This unquestionably demonstrates insistence of early Iranian rulers to codify law and provide justice to their subjects.

The other code known to civilisation popularly is the 'Justinian code' Roman law that was promulgated by Justinian, the contemporary of Khosrow, the Great of Persia who was more popularly known as Anoshervan. The influences of Anoshervan on edicts of Justinian code are extraordinarily evident. It is obvious however that the more ancient cradle civilizations of Iran, China, India and Egypt should have had earlier systems of law.


Iqbal Latif

Self-loathing or self-hatred

by Iqbal Latif on

'Ethnic self-hatred" is the severe
detestation of one's ethnic group or cultural classification.


'Ethnic self-hatred" is worst
kind of Self-loathing or self-hatred
extreme dislike of oneself that originates from low 


Self-hatred and shame are
important factors in some or many mental disorders,
especially disorders that involve a perceived defect of oneself (e.g. body dysmorphic disorder).


Self-hatred is also
a prime feature of many personality



I don't mean to hijack this great blog..

by Mullahkosh on

I don't mean to hijack this blog, or go on some tangent, but I just like to emphasize Vildermose's point about this Khalili dude. I know this guy, he is a pathetic loser, he leads a life of total contradiction, a little Nazi sympathizer with lots of inferior complexity. You know how some girls get into stripping because of daddy issues. This Khalili dude suffers from lots of daddy issues. His father was a pathetic islamofascist at the onset of the revolution, he takes his son back to Iran, and makes them suffer through the Iran-Iraq war, "oh daddy was not nice enough, and did not give him enough love..", now this mentally derranged dude is here lashing out at everything Iranian. Just because his clan in Iran were bunch of ignornat, illiterate fools who were willing to sacrifice everything for that degenerate Khomeini, it doesn't mean rest of the Iranians are the same way.

Look, we have lots of cultural issues that we need to fix. There is no doubt about that, but there is discourse, and arguments, and then there is pure hate which you see at display here. I would not engage this guy, it is not worth any of your precious seconds. Let him remain dark in his ignorance.

At worst he is a delusional, ignorant fool who needs lots of therapy. At best he is an ignorant fool who is a historical revisionist. It seems so ridiculuous for him to compare the U.S or as he puts it "white men" to Iran without a thorough, and comprehensive analysis of their respective history. It is easy to take a period of time, and label things as superior, or inferior. The fact of the matter is that science in the west could not have happened without science in the East, and Middle East. The fact is that while Iran ruled the known world, had relatively advance medicine, science, mathematics 2500 years ago, the so called "superior Germans" were running around naked, eating raw meat in the Black Forest. When Surena brought 6 Roman Legions under the command of Crassus to their knees by completely out manouvering the Romans, the Germans in Tuton Forest under the fire of Roman Catapults thought the Gods were throwing thunderbolt at them, because they could not conceive men to have such weaponry as a catapult. Yes, they were that primitive. Times changes, civlizations have shelf lives, and yes, we are backward now, and we must do something about, but without Khawarzmi who discovered Algebra, without Khayam proving the existance of cubic root, there would be no Newtonian, or Leibnizian Calculus.

Go little boy, and worship your degenerate hero Hitler. You are not helping Iranians, you are here to put us down, but you are too pathetic to be believable.


 khalil, chera chert o

by vildemose on

 khalil, chera chert o pert migi. The most comprehensive book of herb and botany was written years ago in can find a copy at UCLA.

Try to channel your resentments and anger in a positive and proactive way. Instead of weaving arajif after arajif...

You are too offensive and belligerent  and not worthy of debate. That's why people don't want to bother with you even if you have some legitimate points (I have agreed with you on many of them) in your arguments. Get some help kid for your own sake...


Contact any of these professors at UCLA Botany, now-a-days called ecology.

Ask them about contribution of Persians. Maybe you can even go and see that book. I think I saw it in Powell library, I'm not sure. It was gathering dust. That's 15 years ago though. New building and libraries have been builit. UCLA has the largest number of libraries of any university...Pay a visit.


A state of war only serves
as an excuse for domestic tyranny.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Born December 11, 1918

Maryam Hojjat

Mr. Khalili, Wake up

by Maryam Hojjat on

All these discovery and technological advances in west come from most genieus people who immigrated to the West from IRAN and other countries in particular.  To see that look around and google see which natinallity is  the most successful in science & technology in the west in last 33 years since IRI inception.


Iranians failed to study even their own plant and animal life

by JahanKhalili on

They have lived in Iran for thousands of years, and didn't do it.

White Americans haven't been living in America that long, and they discovered and studied almost every species here, and also discovered and studied some of those in Iran.

I'd say that that makes Iranians look pretty dumb. 

Maryam Hojjat

Mr. Latif, Thank you for your blog

by Maryam Hojjat on

and thank you for your great interest & respect for Persian culture.  I also appreciate very much your contribution on IC to inform us about topics which some of us are ignorant about. 


White Americans don't need to pat themselves on the back

by JahanKhalili on

Their success in the realms of discovery and invention are self-evident already.


Baldrick jan

by amirkabear4u on

You said;

This shows that Middle Easterners are prestige worshippers

Maybe you like to explain what americans are like if they do not like prestige. They are the only nation WITHOUT long history who are so full of themsleves. If that is not prestige worshiping what is it then????????????


You mention names of people and buildings

by JahanKhalili on

Can you mention a discovery? Let me re-read this, in case I missed.

I don't know why Middle Easterners are so stuck with their perception of science as something that comes from great men, instead of being something that comes from curiosity.

Whenever they talk about something that is supposed to be a technological or scientific achievement, the talk always ends up being centered around the person who was involved.

Its never about the actual discovery itself.

This shows that Middle Easterners are prestige worshippers, and don't really have any genuine interest in science or in discoveries themselves.

These things are rather seen as something that enhance's ones own reputation, or by extension ones national pride, rather than being things that are valued for themselves.