This poem was first published in Persian in Sorrow of the Border (anduh-e marz) San Diego 1989, and then in English in
 At the turn of the century, the British made an agreement with the khans of the Bakhtiyari tribe who ruled the area where petroleum was first discovered in Iran.
 Today called “Khorramshahr”, a city near the Persian Gulf.
 The initial slogan of the movement which led to the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911 in Iran.
 After the nationalization of the oil fields, Dr. Mosaddeq, the prime minister who had led this movement, was ousted by the CIA, and in 1953 the Shah returned to power and made new contracts with Western companies.
 The Shah’s slogan in the late 1970’s was “Iran is marching towards the grand gates of civilization”. �
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