(New York, July 21, 2008) – Iranian authorities should immediately release or charge two physicians who are internationally recognized for their work on HIV/AIDS, Human Rights Watch said today. The men, Arash and Kamyar Alaei, who are brothers, were detained without charge by Iranian security forces in late June, and their whereabouts remain unknown. On June 22, security forces detained Arash Alaei, holding him overnight at an unknown location. The following morning, they accompanied him to his home, where they arrested Kamyar Alaei and seized material and documents belonging to the brothers. The authorities have not yet announced why the brothers were detained or whether or not they intend to bring any charges against them. Moreover, they have refused to disclose information about where the Alaei brothers are being held and have not provided them access to counsel.