For many Shiites in Iraq, Mr. Hakim, who fled the country in 1982, embodied their resistance and suffering. While in exile in Iran he helped establish the organization that he would go on to lead, the called The Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution. The chief aim of the group was to topple Saddam Hussein.
Mr. Hakim led the group’s militia and fought on the side of Iran in the eight-year war with Iraq. During that time, six of his seven brothers were executed in Iraq.