Appeal to fear: Appeals to fear seeks to build support by instilling fear in the general population – for example Joseph Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufman‘s Germany Must Perish! to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German people.
Appeal to authority: Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position idea, argument, or course of action.
Bandwagon-and-inevitable-victory appeals attempt to persuade the target
audience to take a course of action “everyone else is taking.” “Join
the crowd.” This technique reinforces people’s natural desire to be on
the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that
a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it
is in their interest to join. “Inevitable victory” invites those not
already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain
victory. Those already, or partially, on the bandwagon are reassured
that staying aboard is the best course of action.
This technique is used to get the audience to disapprove an action or
idea by suggesting the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or
held in contempt by the target audience. Thus, if a group which
supports a policy is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or
contemptible people also support it, the members of the group might
decide to change their position.
Glittering generalities are intensely emotionally appealing words so
closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs that they
carry conviction without supporting information or reason. They appeal
to such emotions as love of country, home; desire for peace, freedom,
glory, honor, etc. They ask for approval without examination of the
reason. Though the words and phrases are vague and suggest different
things to different people, their connotation is always favorable: “The
concepts and programs of the propagandist are always good, desirable,
Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize
questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used
to justify such actions or beliefs.
Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its
own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of
undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to
determine their reasonableness or application
This is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities
(praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (an individual,
group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another in order to
make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. This technique is
generally used to transfer blame from one member of a conflict to
another. It evokes an emotional response which stimulates the target to
identify with recognized authorities.
Oversimplification: Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems.
The “plain folks” or “common man” approach attempts to convince the
audience that the propagandist’s positions reflect the common sense of
the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by
communicating in the common manner and style of the audience.
Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothes in
face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify
their point of view with that of the average person.
Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to
support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The
reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the
individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places
the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a
propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target
audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the
authority’s opinions and beliefs as its own.
or Labeling: This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an
audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something
the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable.
Assigning blame to an individual or group that isn’t really
responsible, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible
parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem
for which blame is being assigned.
These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend
to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace,
happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, etc., are virtue words.
A slogan is a brief striking phrase that may include labeling and
stereotyping. If ideas can be sloganized, they should be, as good
slogans are self-perpetuating memes.