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Definition of Poetry in Prose and Verse

The term Poetry has been possibly derived from ancient Greek word of Poieo, which means I create. Poetry is typically a written art form in which human language is used for its artistic characters in addition to, or instead of its imaginary content. According to many scholars, poetry is considered as an ancient art, older than print, older than paint, and older than writing. It is presumed that the art of poetry, using the human body as its medium, evolved for specific uses; to hold things in memory, both within and beyond the individual life span; to achieve intensity and sensuous appeal; and to express feelings and ideas rapidly and memorably
In this article the definition of poetry both in prose and verse would be presented and discussed
DEFINITIONS OF POETRY IN PROSE
It is difficult to have a single definition of poetry that fits all its varying structures, styles, and subject material. A typical dictionary might define poetry as literary composition written in verse with meaning. This simple definition only characterizes poetry on the surface, but there is so much more to poetry than just words. Here are a few examples
Cambridge Dictionary defines the poem as a piece of writing in which the words are arranged in separate lines, often ending in rhyme, and are chosen for their sound and for the images and ideas they suggest
According to Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary the poem is a piece of poetry, and the poetry is a type of discourse which achieves its effect by rhythm, sound patterns, and imagery. And most characteristically, the poetic form evokes emotions or sensations, but it may also serve to convey loftiness of tone or to lend force to ideas
The Encyclopedia Britannica defines the poetry as a writing that formulates a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience in language chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through its meaning, sound, and rhythm. It may be distinguished from prose by its compression, frequent use of conventions of meter and rhyme, use of the line as a formal unit, heightened vocabulary, and freedom of syntax. Its emotional content is expressed through a variety of techniques, from direct description to symbolism, including the use of metaphor and simile
The Online Encyclopedia of Wikipedia suggests that the most convenient way to get to know poetry is to read poetry
Some Modernists such as the Surrealists approach the problem of Poetry's Definition by defining poetry not as a literary genre within a set of genres, but as the very manifestation of human imagination, the substance which all creative acts derive from
DEFINITION OF POETRY IN VERSE
Though it is difficult to define poetry definitively, many poets have given their own definitions in either poetical lines or in some short or long poems

American author –poet Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) wrote that, "Poetry is the synthesis of hyacinths (the pleasant-smelling plants), and biscuits”

American poet Robert Frost (1874-1963) once wrote Poetry is the first thing lost in translation
America University Professor and poetess Nikki Giovanni believes poetry can be also identified as a pure energy. Nikki Giovanni was the NAACP Image Award winner for Literature in 1998, 2000, and 2003. Here is a part of her Poetry
Poetry is motion graceful as a fawn, gentle as a teardrop
Strong like the eye: finding peace in a crowded room
A poem is pure energy horizontally contained between the mind of
the poet and the ear of the reader

American ballet performer and poetess Lydia Grace Haug, in her own verses, questions What a Poem Is? She is a graduate of 2005 from Indiana University Ballet Theater with a Bachelor of Science in Ballet Performance with an Outside Field in English
Tell me, what is a poem: just an inanimate object, lifeless
A strand of parts, words joined together like links in a chain
One person's ideas, thoughts, passions: love, hate, sorrow, birth, death
Or a fusion, flowing symbiotically like leaves on a vine
A mystery unfolding: Tell me, what is a poem
Is it still life, dormant, asleep? Or words
Waiting to be awakened; when read, then spoken
Given voice: Tell me, what is a poem

In a Persian Poem on the Definition of Poetry by this author, the poetry is defined, among many other things, as an existing history, a river of deliberation, a space for justice and honesty, a chapter of wisdom and knowledge, a border of art, a diary of love, a faculty of literature and ideology, an ocean of care and kindness, and a gift from heaven
 
EPILOGUE
As already noted, it is difficult to define poetry definitively, especially when one considers that poetry encompasses varying structures, styles, and subject material
However, poetry may be distinguished from prose literature in terms of form by its smaller size, by its frequent use of meter and rhyme, by its dependence on the line as a formal unit, by its heightened vocabulary, and by its freedom of syntax. There is also a fundamental distinction between the emotion felt from reading a story and the emotions stimulated by poetry; the former is derived from incident, the latter from the depiction of feeling. In poetry, the source of the emotion is the exhibition of human sensibility; in prose, the source is merely a series of outward circumstances. Through poetry, one learns to deal with change, to come to terms with joy and grief, and to celebrate the wonder still to be found in the extraordinary energy of daily life. Because of this aspect alone, poetry cannot be limited by definitions. It cannot be communicated or comprehended other than by the use of poetry itself.

Balatarin

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Zendanian

Zendanian An injury to one is an injury to all.

Dear AI thanks for your interest in Rimbaud.

Unfortunately the sources available on internet really don't do justice to complexities of Rimbaud's works. In my limited knowledge of the subject I have found writings of the great American literary critique, the late Edmund Wilson very useful and comprehensive, not to mention that Wilson's style of writing is so accessible, jargon free and easy to comprehend that it really makes you nostalgic for 40's and 50's!
Edmund Wilson's great master piece "AXEL'S CASTLE: A Study in the Imaginative literature 1870-1930" also has a chapter on Rimbaud. cheers

A Study in the Imaginative
literature of 1870-1930

AllIranians

All-Iranians Previous Contributions: http://iranian.com/main/member/all-iranians.html ++++++++++ Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall: Confucius

Jenab-e Zendanian Thank you for your reply. AI also likes to admit that Arthur Rimbaud was a great guy; Victor Hugo described him at the time as "an infant Shakespeare":
From Wikipedia: "Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet. Born in Charleville, Ardennes, he produced his works while still in his late teens—Victor Hugo described him at the time as "an infant Shakespeare"—and gave up creative writing altogether before the age of 20. As part of the decadent movement, Rimbaud influenced modern literature, music, and arts, and prefigured surrealism. Rimbaud was known to have been a libertine and restless soul, travelling extensively on three continents before his death from cancer just after his 37th birthday".
More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rimbaud

M.SaadatNoury

M. Saadat Noury 1. Life Story and Photo: http://othervoicespoetry.org/vol29/noury/bio.html == 2. Poetry Anthology: http://saadatnoury.blogspot.ca/ =================== 3. Selected Articles: http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/

Dear FN & Dear Zendanian
Thank you for your informative notes. Please accept this in return
http://erolit.blogsky.com/1389/04/14/post-36/

AllIranians

All-Iranians Previous Contributions: http://iranian.com/main/member/all-iranians.html ++++++++++ Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall: Confucius

Jenab-e Zendanian
From Wikipedia: "Illuminations is an uncompleted suite of prose poems by the French poet Arthur Rimbaud...The texts were reprinted in book form in October 1886 by Les publications de La Vogue under the title Les Illuminations proposed by the poet Paul Verlaine, Rimbaud's former lover" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illuminations_(poems)
Was Arthur Rimbaud a gay?

Zendanian

Zendanian An injury to one is an injury to all.

Jenab AI

Thanks for the Wiki piece on "Illuminations".

Yes, at least in one point of his life Rimbaud had homosexual tendencies and his friendship with Verlaine was probably an emotional turning point in his short life. Below is a sample of an exchange between the two:
http://www.mag4.net/Rimbaud/DocumentsE2.html

Unfortunately Rimbaud's life didn't have a happy ending. But the sheer genius of a teenager composing a book like "Illuminations" will forever be a high lite in the history of world poetry. As mentioned before, no one in that age group has yet produced anything even close to "Illuminations." There was a wonderful French documentary on Rimbaud's life, produced a few years ago, unfortunately can't find it at the moment, if I find it, it would be worthy of a blog by itself. Cheers

Zendanian

Zendanian An injury to one is an injury to all.

Dear friends SN & FN thanks for your informative replies.
The reason I chose Arthur Rimbaud's "Illuminations" and its Persian translation was actually many sided.
First off Rimbaud wrote this when he was only 18 years old, and the form of poetry in this book was of a type that defied many forms and definitions of poetry before it. To this day in the history of world poetry no one at such an age has been able to produce such lasting work of poetry!
Also the time and the location when he wrote this book was 1871 in city of Paris, which as we all know was also experiencing the creation and bloody demise of the historical Paris Commune.
Kristin Ross is her seminal work of literary criticism " The Emergence of Social Space: Rimbaud and the Paris Commune" writes a comprehensive treatment of this relationship, alas her book hasn't been translated to Persian yet.
http://thefunambulist.net/2010/12/23/history-the-emergence-of-social-space-rimbaud-and-the-paris-commune-by-kristin-ross/
And last but not least the late Bizhan Ellahi's majestic translation of that book into Persian which took him 16 years, is really a cultural miracle by itself! Not to mention Ellahi's notes and explanations of the lines, which runs twice the size of the book itself. That translation is probably one of the best examples and a lesson for all translators on how to keep faithful and innovative in a translation.
Last but not least below is a link to a brief discussion of "Blank Verse" Shear Sefid in Persian. Cheers.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"شعر سپيد چيست؟"

http://jafarimahmood.blogfa.com/post-97.aspx

FriendlyNotes

Friendly Notes Don't walk behind me; I may not lead. Don't walk in front of me; I may not follow. Just walk beside me and be my friend: Albert Camus ============================= Legacy: http://iranian.com/main/member/friendly-notes.html

Dear Dr Saadat Noury & Dear Zendanian....Here is also something to read on the relative subject that you wrote about
درباره‌ي تاريخچه‌ي ترجمه‌ي شعر درايران
http://www.vazeh.com/n-4946667.html

M.SaadatNoury

M. Saadat Noury 1. Life Story and Photo: http://othervoicespoetry.org/vol29/noury/bio.html == 2. Poetry Anthology: http://saadatnoury.blogspot.ca/ =================== 3. Selected Articles: http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/

Dear Zendanian
Thank you for your kind comment and your very interesting note on the important topic of the Poetry Translation. Please accept this in return
Art of Translating Poetry: http://www.amazon.com/The-Translating-Poetry-Burton-Raffel/dp/0271028696

Zendanian

Zendanian An injury to one is an injury to all.

با تشکر از فراهم آوردن چنین فضایی برای تبادل نظر و آشنایی بیشتر با هنر شعر.
با استفاده از این فضا میخواهم یکی از برجسته ترین شاعران مدرن جهان "آرتور رامبو" و ترجمه پارسی یکی از مطرح ترین کتب های وی" اشراقها" به زبان فارسی ( توسط زنده یاد بیژن الهی، که به مدت شانزده سال طول کشید) را دراین جا به خوانندگان محترم معرفی نموده. به امید اینکه این معرفی احیانا مقدمه ای بر آشنایی بیشتر با آرتور رامبو و ....بشود.
با سپاس.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://do-lb.blogspot.com/search/label/%D8%A8%DB%8C%DA%98%D9%86%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87%DB%8C%D8%8C%20%D8%A7%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82%D9%87%D8%A7


اشراقها، اوراق مصور آرتور رمبو / بیژن الهی

به‌طور كلي هيچ گزاره‌اي را نمي‌توان فقط به گوينده نسبت داد: گزاره حاصل كنش متقابل گوينده و شنونده، و به معناي وسيع‌تر،‌ حاصل تمام آن وضعيت اجتماعي پيچيده‌اي‌ست كه در آن نمودار شده‌ است.

- سوداي مكالمه، ‌خنده، آزادي
نوشته : ميخاييل باختين





حالا، يك‌سال از روزي كه اين پنجره گشوده شد، مي‌گذرد. از عصبیت و هيجان آن روزها خبري نيست، ديگر. من هم، مثل خيلي‌ها، نگراني‌ام را از اين مرزوبوم برداشته‌ام؛ نمي‌گويم از اين‌جايي بودنم پشيمانم، اما كم نمانده اين را بگويم! گذشته از اين حرفها، از كلِ اين ماجرا، احساسِ رضايت مي‌كنم؛ كه كمترين كاري بوده كه مي‌توانستم.

چه خبر؟ مرگِ دل. گُلی ندمید
تا به لطف هوا، به گریه ی ابر
از زمین رازِ آسمان نچشید.
تازه شد داغِ لاله های طری. *

اولين كتابي كه اين‌جايي شد، ترجمه‌ي حلاج ِ الهي بود؛ كه البته آن‌طور كه مي‌خواستم نشده بود، و با عجله و بي‌دقتي‌ دوباره‌سپاري‌اش كرده بودم. بيژن الهي، وسواس عجيبي دارد، ظاهرن، بر شكلي كه برگزيده براي چاپ كتاب، چه در ويراست، و چه در پانوشتها و ظرايفِ ديگري كه در همه‌ي كتابهايش قابل پي‌گيري‌ست. يك‌سالي مي‌شود كه كتاب اشراقها / اوراق مصور آرتور رمبو – ترجمه‌ي بيژن الهی را دست گرفته‌ام براي تايپ كردن، آن‌قدر ريزه‌كاري داشت اين ‌كار، كه وقت زيادي از من مي‌گرفت، كه اگر تايپيست صرف بودم، حتمن اين‌طور نمي‌شد؛ به هر حال، امروز اين كار به سرانجام رسيد با آن همه بارها، كه دست كشيده بودم از تايپ – براي چه؟ براي چه كسي؟ و با اين سوالها.
توي اين بازسپاري، تمام كوششم وفادار بودن بود به تمامِ آن‌چه به نظرم مي‌آمد، براي مترجم، مهم بوده‌ست؛ از پانوشتها گرفته تا رسم‌الخط و نشانه‌گذاري‌ها. دلم مي‌خواست واژه‌نامه را هم تايپ كنم، كه دست و وقتم قوت نداد.


"پرچم چه ميايد به دورنماي لجن، و به عنعناتِ ما دف خفه‌خون مي‌گيرد.
در مراكز اشاعه فحشا كنيم، از وقاحتْ افسانه. قتلِ عام كنيم، آري، هر
چه قيامِ منطقي‌ست."

" مردمسالاري / اشراقها "


كتاب را(اشراقها/ اوراق مصور آرتور رمبو – بیژن الهی) چند سال پيش، از اتفاق، توي كتابخانه‌ي سيروس حسيني عزيز ديدم، كه از قرار هم، نتوانسته بود ارتباط بگيرد با ترجمه؛ كتاب را هم داد به من، دستش درد نكند، حالا كه توي ينگه دنيا نشسته، و اصلن هم يادش از اين كتاب نمي‌آيد احتمالن. من همان‌وقت "اشاره" را خواندم، كه شايد بتوان به جرات از دل اين "اشاره" كه اين‌جا، الهي، نوشته بر اشراقها، رويكرد مترجم را نسبت به ترجمه دريافت؛ تئوري‌اي كه شايد، مورد انتقاد خيلي‌ها باشد. و البته، شايد بهتر باشد، اين اشاره را، بگذاريم كنار اشاره‌اي كه بر گزيده‌ي لوركا (انتشارات اميركبير- بازچاپ 1382) نوشته،‌ بيژن الهي؛ تا نگاه مترجم را به شعرِ ترجمه بهتر دريابيم (مثلن: لب تعريف (بي‌حال و مجال هيچ تفصيلي) اين كه ناقل در حد "خبرنگار" كار مي‌كند، عامل در حد "مجري" – رابطه‌اش با متن رابطه‌ي كارگردان با نمايشنامه، فيلمساز با فيلمنامه، و آوازخوان با آواز: آوازي كه ديگري به نغمه در آورده‌ست، تا او به "صدا" در‌آورد؛ يا چنان‌كه نقاشان سنتي، گاهي، دو تنه روي يك پرده كار مي‌كردند: يكي "رقم" مي‌زد،‌ يكي "عمل" مي‌آورد – اشراقها، اشاره، ص 12) نگاهي كه تكامل‌اش را در ترجمه‌هاي متاخرترش، مثلن در "اين شماره با تاخير 3" مي‌توان پي‌گرفت (مایه ی آرامِ جانند این نوابغ: مرحبا!/ سیرانو دو برژراک، لمعات نمایش رُستان با نقل قصه اش تا پایان، دوم/چهار؛ بیژن الهی. این شماره با تاخیر3 ).
اما، از نگر من، آن‌چه ترجمه‌ي الهي را متمايز مي‌كند، جداي از دقت‌اش در گزينشِ چه شعری/شاعري، و در شكل‌بندي‌ي اسكلت شعر فارسي شده؛ ويژه كردن لحن – نزديك شدن به همان لحني كه شاعر مي‌خواسته در زبان مبدا – است؛ آنچه معمولن خیلی کم داریم، در شعر ترجمه، که اگر شعر چند شاعر را ترجمه کرده باشد: مترجمی، از آهنگ شعر هیچ نمی شود دانست که شعرها مال یک نفر نیستند، آنقدر دستِ مترجم به کار برگرداندن واژه واژه بوده، که یادش رفته انگار شاعری به کار پرداختنِ شعر بوده، به شاعری! براي درك اين تمايز، كافي‌ست كه چند ترجمه از الهي را برداريم، بنشانيم كنار ترجمه‌ي ديگران؛ مثلن بگيريد "گزيده‌ي اشعار لوركا" را به مقايسه ترجمه‌ي شاملو از لوركا؛ هرچند كه لوركاي شاملو دل‌نوازتر باشد – و همه ی شعرهاش با یک ریتم - اما خيلي پرت مي‌آيد انگار. يا برداريد ترجمه‌هاي آقاي پارسايار را – مثلن از همين رمبو ("مرا باز می گرداند به جایی که خورشید خاموش می شود" / دانته، کمدی الهی؛ بیت 60، سرود اول دوزخ)– بگذاريد كنار همين اشراقها يا "ساحت جوّاني"ي هانري ميشو كه الهي برگردانده؛ گمان نمي‌كنم توضيح بخواهد!


چه خبر؟ مرگ حق حق و هوهو.
لال شد مرغ و نغمه رفت از یاد،
تا که گُنگانِ ده زبانِ دورو
نازمستی کنند و جلوه گری. *


اشراقها، اوراق مصور آرتور رمبو / بیژن الهی


* شعرِ "مناعی"، گردانه ای از قطعه ای از حلاج در آخرین شبِ زندان... بیژن الهی؛ این شماره با تاخیر3.

M.SaadatNoury

M. Saadat Noury 1. Life Story and Photo: http://othervoicespoetry.org/vol29/noury/bio.html == 2. Poetry Anthology: http://saadatnoury.blogspot.ca/ =================== 3. Selected Articles: http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/

یادداشت های دوستانه ی گرامی
باسپاس و در در پاسخ، سروده ی زیر تقدیم می شود

شعر دانی چیست؟ مرواریدی از دریای عقل
شاعر آن افسون گری کاین طرفه مروارید سفت
صنعت و سجع و قوافی، هست نظم و نیست شعر
ای بسا ناظم که نظمش نیست الا حرف مفت
شعر آن باشد که خیزد از دل و جوشد از لب
باز در دل ها نشیند هر کجا گوشی شنفت
ای بسا شاعر که او در عمر خود نظمی نساخت
وی بسا ناظم که او در عمر خود شعری نگفت : ملک الشعرای بهار

FriendlyNotes

Friendly Notes Don't walk behind me; I may not lead. Don't walk in front of me; I may not follow. Just walk beside me and be my friend: Albert Camus ============================= Legacy: http://iranian.com/main/member/friendly-notes.html

با تشکر از پیوند "منظومه ی شناخت شعر"، دکتر اسماعیل خوئی نیز معتقد است که شعر باید سخن اززبانِ مردم باشد:
در شعر، نخواهم ز خدایان باشم
یعنی ز مهین نغمه سرایان باشم
خواهم سخن اززبانِ مردم گویم
یعنی که صدای بی صدایان باشم : دکتر اسماعیل خوئی