From King to Prime Minister of The Republic of Bulgaria. Rather than regaining his throne, King Simeon II returned to Bulgaria in 2001 after more than 50 years in exile at the head of a democratically elected government.
Simeon is one of the last living heads of state from the World War II-era, the only living person who bore the Slavonic title “Tsar”, and one of the few monarchs in history to have become the head of government through democratic elections.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria existed from 1908 to 1946. It had earlier become independent of the Turkish Ottoman Empire as the Principality of Bulgaria but after joining with East Rumelia became a full kingdom with the monarch given the title of “Tsar”. As such, it is sometimes known as the 3rd Bulgarian Empire. Following the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe at the end of World War II the young monarch King Simeon II was deposed and Bulgaria became a communist republic, a puppet regime of the Soviet Union in 1946. After the end of the Cold War Simeon II was finally able to return and eventually was elected Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria; the only former monarch to return to politics in such a way. The royal house is Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Royals of Bulgaria:
About Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha known as King Simeon II of Bulgaria:
On 5 September 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and the Red Army invaded the country. On 9 September 1944, Prince Kyril and the other regents were deposed by a Soviet-backed coup and arrested. The three regents, all members of the last three governments, Parliament deputies, heads of the army and eminent journalists were executed by the Communists in February 1945. The royal family (Queen Giovanna, Simeon II, and his sister Maria-Louisa) remained at Vrana Palace near Sofia, while new communist regents were appointed. In her memoirs, Queen Giovanna recounts that Soviet soldiers at that time would entertain themselves by shooting at random in the direction where she was walking with the children. On 15 September 1946, a plebiscite was held in the presence of the Soviet army. It resulted in over 97% approval for a newly established republic and abolished the monarchy. On 16 September 1946, the royal family was exiled from Bulgaria. However, Simeon II never signed any abdication papers (which were unlikely to have any legality anyway, as he was still a minor). The royal family first went to Alexandria, Egypt, where Queen Giovanna’s father Victor Emanuel III, King of Italy, lived in exile. There, Simeon II finished Victoria College (along with Crown Prince Leka of Albania). In July 1951, the Spanish government of Francisco Franco granted asylum to the family. Simeon issued several political declarations during his exile through his “chancellery” in Madrid directed at the Communist regime in Bulgaria and his exiled compatriots. His early attempts at forming an official government in exile did not come to fruition, however.
In Madrid, Simeon studied at the Lycée Français, but did not graduate. On 16 June 1955, upon turning 18, in accordance with the Tarnovo Constitution Simeon II read his proclamation to the Bulgarian people as the Tsar of Bulgaria, confirming his will to be king of all Bulgarians and follow the principles of Tarnovo Constitution and free Bulgaria. In 1958, he enrolled at Valley Forge Military Academy and College in the United States, where he was known as “Cadet Rylski No. 6883”, and graduated as a second lieutenant. Once again in Spain, Simeon studied law and business administration.
He became a businessman. For thirteen years, he was chairman of the Spanish subsidiary of Thomson, a French defence and electronics group. He was also an adviser in the banking, hotel, electronics, and catering sectors.
Views on restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy:
Simeon II has never renounced his royal claim to the Bulgarian throne. He used the title “Tsar of the Bulgarians” in his political statements during his exile. Since his return to Bulgaria, however, Simeon has consistently declined to reveal his views on the restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy. Upon taking office as prime minister, he took an oath to protect the country’s republican Constitution. More Here