RESTORATION: Elected Monarchs of Malaysia

The modern, united country of Malaysia came into being in 1963 after a long process of independence and unification following their status as a collection of colonies within the British Empire. Malaysia is unique in that it is an electoral monarchy which rotates every five years. Chosen from among the monarchs of the various royal states of Malaysia the sovereign’s official title is “Yang di-Pertuan Agong” which translates to “He Who Is Made Lord”, the supreme head of the federation of Malaysia. Thank You JJ For the Tips ;0)

National Geographic’s Report: Becoming a King:


The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established at independence in 1957.

Translated into literal English, the words mean “He who is made Lord”. However, common alternatives are “King”, “Supreme Ruler”, “Paramount Ruler”, or “Supreme Head of State”. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. The Closest comparison that comes to mind in Europe is the Pope ( who is elected but for Life) who is also head of State of the Vatican ( Truly an Independant State within the State of Italy).

Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) (The 13th King of Malaysia full name and title: A-Wathiqu Billah Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah):

Prime Minister’s Oath ( Currently Najib Tun Razak) to King at Royal Palace Ceremony:

Since 1993, the full title in Malay has been, Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Conqueror Majesty The Supreme Lord of the Federation). Prior to that, the honorific Ke Bawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (The Dust Under The Feet Of His Royal Highness) was also used. The consort of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is called the Raja Permaisuri Agong. The couple are addressed in English as “His Majesty” and “Her Majesty”.

In Malaysia’s constitutional monarchy, the role of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is largely ceremonial. The constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the King and is exercised by him on the advice of the federal Council of Ministers. The latter is headed by the Prime Minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament.

The 13th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, the Sultan of Terengganu. His reign began on 13 December 2006 after his election by the Conference of Rulers. He was formally enthroned on 26 April 2007.

Constitutional Powers of The Yang di-Pertuan Agong:

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong’s role is that of a constitutional monarch. The Federal Constitution and Parliamentary Acts made in accordance with it define the extent of his powers as the Federal Head of State. The executive power of the federal government is vested in him.

The monarch’s powers are basically divided into two broad categories:

  • the powers that he exercises on the advice of the Prime Minister, a Minister, the Cabinet, the Conference of Rulers, or some other officer or institution; and
  • the powers that he exercises at his discretion (without the consent of any other authority).


The discretionary powers of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong pertain chiefly to appointing the Prime Minister, dissolving Parliament, and calling meetings with the Conference of Rulers “concerned solely with the privileges, position, honours and dignities of Their Royal Highnesses.” Under the Westminster System, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is expected to appoint a Prime Minister who will command the confidence of a majority of the elected lower house of Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat. Should the Prime Minister be or become unacceptable, he may be forced out by a vote of no confidence, which would require the King to appoint someone else. Conventionally, the Prime Minister is the head of the party with a majority in Parliament. Since independence in 1957, this has been the Barisan Nasional (National Front, formerly known as the Alliance).

The King renews the appointment of a Prime Minister after every general election until the minister decides to step down. Whenever the Prime Minister chooses to dissolve Parliament, he calls for a general election. The King may choose to refuse a Prime Minister’s request to dissolve Parliament, as one of his discretionary powers.

Vice King in Absentia:

A Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong) is elected by the same process immediately after the YDP. The purpose of having a Deputy YDP is to exercise the functions of Yang di-Pertuan Agong during the king’s absence, or inability to exercise functions owing to illness or infirmity.

The Deputy YDP does not automatically advance to become the Yang di-Pertuan Agong when a vacancy occurs in the office. The Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong acts as the head of state before the elections of the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Kings of Malaysia:

Malaysia History in 10mins:


The King appoints numerous high-ranking office holders in the Federation under the terms of the Constitution and various Acts passed by Parliament. The constitution established procedures for such appointments.

The Council of Ministers (cabinet)

  • Prime Minister (Chairman of the Cabinet), at his discretion from among the elected members of the House of Representatives who belong to the majority party or coalition.
  • Ministers and Deputy Ministers (the second in command of a Ministry), on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Directors (in charge of the different sections in the various Ministries), on the advice of the Prime Minister.


Commisions and Committees

  • The Election Commission, on the advice of the Conference of Rulers.
  • The Judicial and Legal Service Commission, after consultation with the Chief Justice
  • The Malaysian Public Service Commission at his discretion, after considering the advice of the Prime Minister and after consultation with the Conference of Rulers.





The King appoints 44 members of the Malaysian Senate.

State Governors

The King appoints the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governors), of the states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, at his discretion, after considering the advice of the state’s Chief Minister.

The YDP also appoints the Mayor and City Council of Kuala Lumpur, which is a Federal Territory.

Head of Islam

In addition, the King is the Head of Islam in the four states ruled by appointed Governors: the three Federal Territories, as well as in his own state. In this role, he is advised by the State Islamic Affairs Council in each of the States.

The King appoints the Chairman and members of each council. He also appoints the State Mufti (Head Imam) in each of these states. There is a single Islamic Affairs Council with jurisdiction for the three Federal Territories. This council is also appointed by the King.

Commander in Chief

In accordance with Article 41 of the Federal Constitution, the King is Commander-in-Chief of the Federation’s Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military establishment.

As the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Chief of the Armed Forces Staff, on the advice of the Armed Forces Council. He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military.


HUMAN RIGHTS DEFICIENCY: Although not a heriditary monarchy like nearly all those in Westen Europe, There are some major human rights violations in Malaysia which include the following:

  • The right to vote freely
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Equality of Religion
  • Independence of the legal system
  • Freedom from Torture
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom from Discrimination
  • Homosexual Rights
  • More On Human Rights Violations Here

    Related Blogs:

    RESTORATION: The British Royal Family at Work (PBS : 7 Parts)

    RESTORATION: Prince Charles, The Meddling Prince (5 Parts)

    RESTORATION: Belgium King Baudouin takes Oath Amidst Republican Animosity (31st July ,1950)

    RESTORATION: Greek Constitutional Monarchy Toppled by Military Coup (April 21st, 1967)

    RESTORATION: King Simeon II of Bulgaria, The Republican Prince

    Royal History Forums:

    HISTORY FORUM: How Truly Democratic is The British Monarchy ? 

    HISTORY FORUM:The Monarchy with David Starkey (Cambridge University)

    Meet Iranian Singles

    Iranian Singles

    Recipient Of The Serena Shim Award

    Serena Shim Award
    Meet your Persian Love Today!
    Meet your Persian Love Today!