The 1953 Iranian coup d’état (known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup) was the overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States under the name TPAJAX Project
While most Iranians believe that dismissal of the prime minister Mosadegh was a West & Shah “Coup Detat”” against the government of Dr Mohamad Mosadegh ,financed by million Dollars supplied by the Americans to general Zahedi , the CIA agent Kim Roosevelt say that the whole American money spent during the whole operation was about 10 thousand Dollars . In this clip , historians from the Islamic Republic also conclude that the operation on that day can not be named as “Coup Détat “.
A national leader namely Mossadeq in a session of Iran s congress on 26th of Mordad in 1330, in relation to getting a $25M loan from the US said, the government that we are asking a loan from, has no ill intentions to our country and for our land. As the other congressmen know, at the time, Phillipines was a colony of the US, but gradually gained its independence thanks to the US government. Mossadeq continued: The government of the United States has established its policy based on helpig all nations of the world and its policies respect the national independence of all nations.The US government has helped Turkey and Greece. It does not have an imperialistic and expansionist policy towards Iran.
Mossadeq’s requests to the United States were provided by the US government until 1331 and for as long as the democrats were in power. After Eisenhower came to office, the US saw the most effective method for stoping communism in Iran. It was not in helping Mossadeq, but in overthrowing him.
28th of Mordad : Mosaddegh was my uncle and I have written his biography (Dr.Mohammad Mosaddegh: A political biography. London & New York, Croom Helm, 1986), but I think that your younger readers would be more interested in my memories as a teenager in Tehran, during August 1953.
The town had been buzzing for the past few days and all the action was on the streets. Tehran was far smaller then, and it was quite easy to get about from the Baharistan Square (in front of the Majless) to the Bazaar, or up to the university campus, the three main points of action. I would escape from home and roam around the streets, taking photos of street scenes on Eslambol Avenue, looking towards Baharistan Square, Naderi Avenue next to the British Embassy, and others. There are two photos of truck tire tracks in blood, because someone had been killed there just before.
At the time, I was in the Park Hotel (on Hafez) and, before they slammed shut the heavy main gates, I slipped out and followed this quite scary mob. Later, I was found by one of the people sent out to search for me and taken to our garden in Shemiran, where my parents were frantically expecting me. The next day, two army lorries drove to our gate and had to be let in. The soldiers swarmed all over our house and garden, as they claimed that Mosaddegh was in hiding at his brother’s house.
My father ran a summer extension of the Park Hotel, called Park-e-Now (New Park), on the old Shemiran Road (now Shariati), opposite the gas station. That place was totally sacked by the soldiers, and left in ruins, since it belonged to Mosaddegh’s brother. Next, we were kept under house arrest, until my father could secure the release of my sister and myself, to return to school in England.
Farhad Diba August 19, 1998
The day Mosaddegh fell : I wrote this piece back in 1978. It is a graphic eye-witness account of that day when the instinctive and immature hopes of a nation were so cheaply dashed — a nation that had risen against the might of the imperialists of various colors under the sincerity of one man who was encircled and infiltrated by so many insincere, pompous, sometimes passionate, most of the time perilously ignorant, voluble, greedy and ambitious men.
In the summer of 1953 I moved from Abadan to Tehran and filmed various events and men — in the streets and in the privacy of the committee rooms as well as by the bedside of the dear great man working in his bedroom.
August 21, 1998
Musaddiq’s conception of constitutionalism based on his arguments before the court that tried him in 1953: Mohammad Musaddiq’s views on constitutionalism in Iran are worthy of consideration for several reasons: he was the leader of the secular liberal movement National Front, he was a participant-observer from the very first parliament, the Majles, and he was, arguably, Iran’s foremost constitutional lawyer. As Iranian constitutionalism was a young and evolving experiment, Musaddiq’s conception of it could have been expected to change over time. This proved especially true when he assumed the responsibilities of governance as Prime minister during the critical years of the nationalization of Iran’s oil. The challenge of dealing with the competing centers of power would shape Musaddiq’s notion of what was practical under the existing constitutional monarchy in Iran. He had a unique opportunity to articulate his thoughts on this subject when forced to prepare for his trial a month after his overthrow in August 1953. In Musaddiq’s arguments before the court, as this paper will attempt to show, he addressed the core issues of Iran’s constitutionalism comprising the roles of the monarch, the executive branch, representative assemblies, and direct channels for the exercise of popular sovereignty. What emerged as his prescription was a constitutional monarchy where the Shah would be a symbolic and ceremonial figure, the powerful Prime Minister and his cabinet would be accountable to the Majles, the Majles would be the ultimate locus of power, and the electorate would be well informed through the free exchange of diverse opinions and actively vigilant to keep the legislators responsive.
September 14, 2006
What is your view on the developments near 60years ago that led to the American-British coup in Iran on August 19, 1953? How would you analyze the US interference in Iranian affairs?
Dr. Kayhan Barzegar, Director of the Institute for Middle East Strategic Studies: There is a challenge in the US foreign policy concerning balancing its values and interests. When it comes to the Middle East and Iran, the United States has always taken the side of its interests and not values. I think the story goes back to the time after World War II when the US became an interventionist power. Before that America was perceived an honest broker in Iran’s history and at the sight of politicians such as Ahmad Qavam and Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh a value-oriented country. For example, Dr. Mosaddegh hoped that the US government could help him settle the crisis with Britain over the issue of Oil Nationalization. But after World War II, the US reached a position that its main interest was how to settle and establish its sphere of influence in the Middle East. Therefore we see from that point on the US took this position and attempted to balance its power in the Middle East….So the main duty of the United States becomes preserving the Western Anglo-Saxon liberalist values and stability in the region. And unfortunately this goes to our own history and to the 1953 coup that sadly changed Iran’s nationalistic government and I would say that changed the main political-social trends in the entire Middle East during the following years and that led, in one part to the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran. One can even argue that one of the reasons behind the advent of the Arab revolutions today is because of the US interventionist presence in the region’s affairs (11/08/2012)
Who Betrayed the Constitution in 1953?
What is your view? Any comment?