Sacrificing the innocent

Suppression of Baha’is of Iran in 1955


Sacrificing the innocent
by Dr. Bahram Choubine

Translator’s Introduction
In introducing Ali Dashti’s seminal work, 23 Sal, Dr. Choubine has penned a learned essay that places the events of twentieth century Iran in their fuller perspective. This essay has been widely available on the internet. The erudite author has considerably expanded this essay, including more analysis and documentation, and offered it as a preface to Dasthi’s 23 Sal, distributed by Alburz Publishing, in Frankfurt, Germany. A section of this expanded essay (pages 34-42), appearing under the heading, “Sarkub-e Baha’iyan,” is provided below in translation with the kind permission of the author. All footnotes are by the author, unless otherwise noted, as are all comments in parentheses. Clarifying comments in square brackets [ ] are by the translator. Subheadings have been added in the translation to assist with the flow. The Persian original of this section is also available on-line.
-- Ahang Rabbani

Suppression of Baha’is
Persecution and slaying of the Babis and Baha’is was one of the daily activities of the clerics and monarchs of the Qajar dynasty. For religious and political purposes, the propensity to kill Babis and Baha’is continued to the conclusion of the Qajar era.

The Babis had an important role in the Constitutional Movement of Iran and indeed one could claim that their efforts to advance the Constitutional Revolution were critical and constructive. However, this fact does not imply that Baha’is were not supportive of Constitutional rule, as it must be understood that their leaders insisted that Baha’is should not participate in political activities, in order that the newly-founded Baha’i community would remain immune from the attacks of radical constitutionalists, who were all among the leading clerics of the time.

Reza Shah’s Reign
During the rule of Reza Shah, several towns witnessed Baha’i-killings. However, as a whole, persecution of Baha’is was not one of the political objectives of Reza Shah’s era, as his main goal was to limit the influence of religious clerics. It was during his reign that the notion of mellat [national identity] acquired its roots, and to some degree, the religious identity of ummat [body of believers] gave its place to mellat. That is, the country was progressing along the direction that every citizen considered himself an Iranian without concern for religious belief, political orientation or tribal affiliation. However, in the years after Reza Shah’s demise, gradually that policy was forgotten and, once more, the idea of ummat Islami [body of Muslims] entered political discourse. Moreover, the cold war against the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc reinforced this idea among the political figures of Iran.

The founding of Fedaiyan-e Islam [Devotees of Islam] took place after Reza Shah was deposed and was an effort to combat leftist tendencies in Iran.

Post-Reza Shah
In the 20s and 30s [1320s and 30s according to the Islamic calendar; equivalent to the 1940s and 50s], on the pretext that they opposed the Shi‘a religion or had a leftist propensity, the persecution of religious minorities, particularly Baha’is, forced the government and the Shah to follow the path of ummat Islami and obligated them to openly oppose the principles of the Constitutional Revolution and the country’s adopted constitution. Almost all political and public figures, from every faction, significantly contributed to this wayward political path and aided Iranian society’s accelerated separation from the democratic principles of the Constitutional Revolt. It was an opportune moment for strengthening democratic foundations, but, alas, it was lost, and the chance to secure people’s support for improvements and reforms, even to a proscribed and controlled degree, was lost to the Shah and the government.

With Reza Shah’s exit, intense criticism of his rule began. The clerical establishment, like ants, began to wreck the nation’s democratic foundation and every aspect of modern life, enlightened thought, progress and liberty, became a toy in the hand of repressive powers in Iran. After 20 Shahrivar [11 September 1941, the day of Reza Shah’s departure], the entire Shi‘a ecclesiastical order, joined by the ruling class, arose to force women, once again, under chadors and covers, and to close all mixed-gender schools. Groups and societies for the propagation of Islamic traditions and publication of the “truths and teachings of Islam” were organized throughout the country, and began to publish religious pamphlets, daily newspapers and weekly or monthly journals – all of which had the suffix of Islam or Islamic in their title.

In sum, the clerics’ long-held hatred of the Babis and then of the Baha’i movement once again showed itself and the field for expressing animosity and abhorrence against religious minorities, particularly Baha’is, and opposition to enlightened and progressive thoughts among Iranians, became wide open. At clerics’ insistence, Islamic training and [Orthodox] religious education were placed on the curricula of all elementary and high schools throughout the nation.

All of these events took place in Tehran and other cities during the 20s [1940s] and centered on the opposition to Baha’is, Ahmad Kasravi and his supporters, and the Tudeh Party and its members – and all occurred under the supervision of the government, or with the direct collusion of the authorities. In truth, it was the clerical order that established the notion of Da’iy Jan Napoleon [1] among the Iranians who suspect that whatever occurs in Iran is the work of foreign agents. Fictitious and fabricated documents, such as, Memoirs of Prince Dolgorouki, [2] which was manufactured by the fiction-weaving pen of Ali Javaher-Kalam, and published with the financial support of Astan Quds Razavi [3] , and with the support of the leading Shi‘a clerics, were disseminated – and this was just one of the many such products of the clerical establishment.

In reality, the widespread perfidious belief that “any non-Islamic idea is a creation of foreigners” stemmed from the putrid minds of the mullas. Through this method, they wanted to call “anti-Iranian” and “foreign” everything that was not Islamic or might prevent them from acquiring power through Shi‘a religious pretexts. This deceitful “Othering”, and spreading the seeds of sedition and enmity, not only engulfed religious minorities, progressive nationalistic parties and independent leftist groups, but eventually caused the authority of the government and constitutional rule to be undermined as well. That is, it eventually resulted in the clerics widely claiming that the people’s Constitutional Revolution, which in reality had taken place in revolt against clerical influence and the absolutist rule of the Qajar, was an exploit of the Russians and the British. They propagated this baseless idea, insisting that constitutional rule and secular law were fundamentally at variance with the luminous religion of Islam and with Iran’s history.

Beginning of 1955 Opposition to Baha’is
It was stated earlier that after the 28 Mordad coup d'état [4], the mullas insisted on their significant share in the revolt, and this was only possible by suppression of the Tudeh Party and Baha’is. The furtive and renowned preacher, Hujjatu’l-Islam Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi, has stated in his memoirs that his sermons against the Baha’is took place with the prior consent of Ayatollah Borujerdi and Muhammad-Reza Shah. In an interview on 19 Urdibehesht 1334 [10 May 1955] with a reporter of “Itehad-e Melli” Journal, Falsafi described his meeting with Ayatollah Borujerdi in these words:

Before the blessed month of Ramadan, I went to Qum where I met Ayatollah Borujirdi and found him deeply distressed. He stated, “Now that the situation of the Oil industry has been resolved and the Tudeh Party has been neutralized, we must make plans for Baha’is and arise to this challenge.”

In Khaterat va Mubarezat [Memories and Struggles], Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi writes:

Ayatollah Borujerdi sent a message for me to convey the issue [of Baha’is] to the governmental authorities. … Eventually, after Ramadan 1332 [May 1953], he sent a letter for me to meet with the Shah and to express the Ayatollah’s disapproval and displeasure over the situation of [the relative freedom of] Baha’is. … Before Ramadan of 1333 [May 1954], I asked Ayatollah Borujerdi, ‘Are you supportive of the idea that I discuss the situation of Baha’is during my radio sermons which are broadcast live from Masjed Shah?’ He thought for a moment and then responded, ‘If you were to say so, it would be good. For now, the authorities are heedless (of suppression and annihilation of Baha’is). At least that would suppress them [Baha’is] in the field of public opinion.’

He added further, ‘It is necessary to mention this beforehand to the Shah so that he would not have an excuse later to intercede, ruin everything and terminate the radio broadcasts. If the latter were to happen, that would be most unfortunate for the Muslims and would embolden the Baha’is.’

I called the Shah’s office and requested an appointment. When I met the Shah, I stated, ‘Ayatollah Borujerdi has consented that the issue of Baha’is, which is a cause of worry for the Muslims, be dealt with and discussed in my radio sermons during the month of Ramadan. Would your majesty consent as well?’

Falsafi relates that the Shah remained silent for a moment and then stated, “Go and preach accordingly.” [5]

From 1327 [1948], each Ramadan, Falsafi used to deliver sermons against the Tudeh Party. Elimination and annihilation of the Babis and Baha’is was the cherished desire of the mullas and their partners in the government. During those days, it was widely said that strikes against Baha’is and destruction of their administrative and religious centers was one of the government’s objectives. However, this had to wait until Ramadan 1334 [May 1955].

1955 Baha’i Persecution
In accordance with Ayatollah Borujirdi’s wishes, immediately after the 28 Mordad [coup], the attack on Baha’is started with Falsafi’s sermons delivered in Ramadan 1334 [1955]. He commenced a brutal attack on Baha’is and the government confiscated Baha’i properties in every city. In Tehran, in front of the cameras of both foreign and domestic reporters, General [Nader] Batmanghelich, the chief of staff of the Iranian army, along with [General] Taymour Bakhtiar, the military commander of Tehran, took pickaxes and demolished the dome of the Baha’i Center. For many years, that building was impounded by the military and used for its own command center.

General Muhammad Ayarmalu, the deputy-chief of the most powerful branch of government, namely, the Department for Security and Information [SAVAK], writes the following in his memoirs:

One morning, General Batmanghelich, the chief of staff of the army, along with General Taymour Bakhtiar, the military commander, ascended the dome of the Baha’i Center [in Tehran] and with pickaxes started to demolish the dome of the building.

The next morning, the military attaché of the United States came to my office and with an infuriated voice stated, “What was this act that the chief of staff committed? Why would the chief of military pick up an ax, and before everyone’s eyes, demolish a building? Furthermore, he targeted a building that is greatly respected and cherished by many of your citizens! My country is assisting Iran to repair the ruins, and now you turn a beautiful building into a ruin?!”

As I, too, was puzzled over this illogical destruction – particularly by the hands of such a high-ranking officer – I remained quiet and said nothing.

A few hours later, the late Batmanghelich summoned me into his office and impatiently asked, “What are the military attachés saying about yesterday’s occurrences?”

Straightforwardly I shared the comments of the American military attaché and added, “Several more of the military attachés have expressed their perplexity and disappointment over this incident.” When I saw him overcome with sorrow, I asked, “General, what truly motivated you to undertake this act?” He lifted his head and responded, “I had no motives. It was the chief’s order.” And by that he meant the late Muhammad-Reza Shah.

As later I read in various monographs, Muhammad-Reza Shah had given this order in order to appease several influential akhunds [clerics], particularly Siyyid Abu’l-Qasem Kashani. … It is interesting to note that twenty-five years later, the late Muhammad-Reza Shah witnessed the result of giving room and yielding to the akhunds. Also twenty-five years later, when General Batmanghelich was seized and prosecuted at the height of the 1357 [1978] Revolution, he recounted this incident in his nearly-successful defense.” [6]

Clerical Influence over the Government
The activities of Ayatollah Borujerdi, and essentially the entire efforts of the Shi‘a ecclesiastic order against Baha’is, were not only aimed at securing the “foundation of the luminous religion of Islam”. In fact, this undertaking was an instrument for the clerics to portray themselves as partners in the 28 Mordad coup d'état and the Thorne.

By yielding to the illegal wishes of the religious and clerical establishment, the Shah and various governments, in effect, placed a stamp of approval on the clerics’ partnership in government’s authority after the 28 Mordad coup d'état. Through a study of documents, letters and communications of the clerics after the 28 Mordad coup d'état until the 1357 [1978] Revolution we can see how intertwined and aligned are the relations of the royal court, the government and the clerics. This affable relationship reached the height that in order to realize his satanic dreams, Ayatollah Borujerdi asked the Shah and Prime Minister Hossein Ala’ to change the nation’s constitution through parliament. This is the text of his letter:

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

To his honored [Hossein Ala’] the Prime Minister, may his glory last!

The letter of your honored self dated 5 Tir 1334 [27 June 1955] conveying the necessary instructions of his majesty to the government regarding my suggestions as communicated in my letter of 27 Shavval 1373 [29 June 1954] was received through Haj Qa’imu’l-Mulk Rafi. The essence of my suggestions, as noted in your letter, are:

1. The Baha’i sect must be prevented from propagation [of its teachings] which is against the luminous religion of Islam.
2. Their centers and gatherings, wherever found across the country, must be closed.
3. Any governmental worker who is not of one of the religions mentioned in the Constitution must be expelled after due investigation. Consequently, the Baha’is would fall into this category [and be expelled].

May God, exalted is His Station, protect holy Islam and the independence of Iran from the harm of accidents and attack of the enemies. And may He confirm and succor his majesty and the authorities in their work of protecting the country and supporting the sacred religion [of Islam].

Upon thee be peace, the Mercy of God and His Bounties.

7 Dhi’l-Qa’dah 1374/7 Tir 1334 [28 June 1955]
Husayn Tabataba’i [7]

During that time and subsequently, Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi would shout and proclaim in every mosque and place of worship that he attended in Tehran or other cities:

Merchants, employees, students, and brave workers of Iran! Arise and fight these irreligious people [8] and Baha’i-sympathizers [9] and thoroughly exterminate them, so that it will be proven that (Imam) Ali is alive, the Prophet (of Islam) is alive and the religion of Islam will not fade away.

Do not permit this illegal government to belittle Islam any more!

After their successful role in the 28 Mordad coup d'état, the clerical establishment would blame the Baha’is for every shortcoming in political, societal or economic conditions, and through this would provoke religious sentiments, as well as inflame the latent anti-Baha’i attitude of the Iranian people. Whenever the Shah or the government retreated on the announced [anti-Baha’i] objectives, the clerics and Shi‘a leaders would refer to “the agreement between the government and the clerics,” or threaten “the government’s fall”, or would say, “Through God’s will, exertions of the brave Muslim nation and the indefatigable ulama [clerics], a mighty victory and advancement can be secured!”[10]

In a telegram to the Shah, Ayatollah Siyyid Muhammad Behbahani stated, “I offer my heartfelt gratitude for closing this center [11] of religious and national sedition through the efforts of the Islamic army and consider this auspicious event to be among the religious anniversaries worthy of celebration.” In response to Ayatollah Behbahani, the Shah noted, “As you have repeatedly heard us state, we consider ourselves bound to carry out the requirements of Islam and beseech the Almighty to continue confirming us in this undertaking.”

In a cable to the Shah, Ayatollah Borujerdi referred to Baha’is as “enemies and trouble-makers” to the royal throne, and stated, “May God, exalted be His station, protect the sacred religion of Islam and Iran’s monarchy from the harm of the enemy and mischief-makers, and may He preserve your majesty over all Muslims.”

In a letter to Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi, Ayatollah Borujirdi – the object of emulation for all Shi‘as – had expressed gratitude for his “precious services” to “the sacred religion of Islam, and indeed to all religions, and to the sanctified Qur’an.” He wrote that since Baha’is held many positions in the government, therefore the highest priority was to remove them all from every agency, department and bureau of the government, and from every other position of influence. In an interview with Keyhan, he expressed his wish for destruction of the Baha’i Center in Tehran, ejection of Baha’is from all governmental and official positions, and adoption of a [parliamentary] plan to remove forcibly all Baha’is from Iran.

On the pulpit, Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi never hesitated to spread every manner of untrue and vicious rumor intended to provoke unschooled, fanatical and superstitious people against Baha’is. Using the old tool of such preachers, he would falsely state, “One of the members of the Tudeh [Party] disclosed to me, ‘As every path of activity was closed to us and since we heard that the following year the Baha’is intend to initiate a coup d'état, therefore we gravitated to them so that we could render an important contribution at that time. In order to prove ourselves particularly interested in the Baha’i religion and their ways, we even took wives from among them.’”

In response to objections from the international community and its agencies, and possibly protests from Western countries against the maltreatment of Baha’is in Iran, Falsafi devised a new trick. On the pulpit he would say, “We do not speak of religion. Our only concern is the group who wears a religious mask, and it is against them that we speak.”

Falsafi’s Ties to America
He himself declared from a pulpit that he had close affiliations with the agents of the American Embassy – a place described by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini as “the nest of spies”. In a resonant voice he would proclaim, “I told Americans that Muslims have fought the Tudeh Party. And if they were to support the Baha’is, it would be like supporting the Tudeh Party, which is an enemy of America.”

In such manner, Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi painted himself as one of the American elements raised to combat communism and socialism in Iran; and insinuated that the cold war waged by the Americans and their European allies was in reality aimed at combating the Baha’is and was an instrument to suppress them within the same policy framework. His implication was that the suppression of Baha’is was not based on religious competition or desire to shroud Iran in uniformity, but actually was part of the struggle against worldwide communism.[12]

Montazeri’s Role in Persecution of Baha’is
The anti-Baha’i activities of Ayatollah Borujerdi were not limited to impelling Falsafi, the preacher, to give sermons against Baha’is. He had dispatched his seminary students and hired thugs throughout the entire country to provoke fanatical and religious mobs to murder and plunder Baha’is. Among hundreds of documents in this regard, the present author can only briefly draw attention to the activities of Shaykh Hossein-Ali Montazeri, who was one of the most firebrand mullas under the tutelage of Ayatollah Borujerdi.

At that time, Shaykh Hossein-Ali Montazeri was a young seminarian, but in the winter of his life he reached the rank of Grand Ayatollah and was a deputy to Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the supreme leader of the Islamic Revolution. He has opened the thick book of his deeds and without any hesitation – indeed with great pride – has recounted many events, and here we note only a few passages:

The late Borujerdi was extremely anti-Baha’i. For instance, they had killed a Baha’i near Yazd and planned to execute his murderer. … Borujerdi had lost all sleep and wanted through any means possible to prevent this hanging. [13] One year, Borujerdi also instructed Falsafi to give sermons against Baha’is on the radio during Ramadan. Ayatollah Kashani also concurred with this.

At the beginning of Ramadan, Falsafi began his preaching against Baha’is. That year his sermons became very popular and people would gather around the radio to listen to him. …

It was about that time that I was given a mission to go to Najaf-Abad. I asked Ayatollah Borujerdi about business dealings, trades and commerce with Baha’is, and in response, he issued a written fatwa stating: “In the Exalted Name of God. It is imperative for the Muslim to avoid association, relationship and dealings with this sect [Baha’is]. …”

This proclamation was spread throughout the city and much publicity was accorded in mosques and other public places. … With the announcement of this religious ruling, an extremely tense atmosphere was created against Baha’is in Najaf-Abad.

At that time, I gathered representatives from every class, creed and strata of Najaf-Abad and each was asked to produce a proclamation against Baha’is. For instance, the bakers wrote, “We will not sell bread to Baha’is.” The taxi-drivers wrote, “We will not permit Baha’is in our cars.” … In short, when previously the taxi-fare between Najaf-Abad and Isfahan had been 1 tuman, it was turned into a situation that if a Baha’i pleaded to be taken by taxi for even 50 tumans, he was not able to find a taxi to take him.

Of course, not all of these suppressions were based on faith and conviction. Many participated because they feared others or the general atmosphere of the society. …

Eventually, my efforts resulted in the Baha’is being eliminated in Najaf-Abad. … After this, they were dispersed and everywhere would hide themselves from public view. … We extended this hostility to Isfahan as well, where a widespread uproar against Baha’is was initiated. …

After a while, it became known that I was the instigator and the author of these incidents.[14]

It was through the schemes and conniving of this just cleric – Ayatollah Montazeri – that the Baha’is of Najaf-Abad were plundered, looted, make homeless and were dispersed – and the government took no action to protect them. Further, it was by the instructions of this propagandist and the brilliant mind behind velayat-e faqih [leadership of religious jurists] that the Baha’i Center of Najaf-Abad was burned to the ground. Montazeri admits that Ayatollah Borujerdi, “was completely aware of my activities and was most pleased.”

Because of the presence of even more malicious clerics, Montazeri failed to become the deputy Imam and even received a letter from his supreme leader dated 68/1/6 [26 March 1989] that for all time will illumine the history of the militant clerics. In this letter, Khomeini addressed Montazeri without the title of Ayatollah Montazeri:

With a broken heart and great sadness, I write this short letter so that one day the people would know the situation. You have forfeited the necessary prerequisites and qualifications to become the next leader of the nation.

From now on, tell the seminarians who bring you money to take the funds to Qum, to the home of Mr. Pasandideh (my brother) or to bring them to Tehran to Jamaran (my residence). Praise unto God that you have no shortage of financial means (thanks to the Islamic Revolution and plundering the possessions of Muslims and non-Muslims).

At this point in the letter, the Imam refers to his deputy as dim-witted and with the customary language of an akhund addresses Montazeri, “Since you are a simpleton”, you must remain home, “perchance God would pardon you your sins.” At the letter’s conclusion, Khomeini writes the reason for this communication:

You have committed a treasonous act against the nameless soldiers of the Hidden Imam [15] and the sacred blood of the martyrs for Islam and the Revolution. So that you would not burn in the depth of hell, you should confess your mistakes and sins perchance God would aid you.

In response to this insulting letter, the deputy of Imam Khomeini, the illustrious Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, wrote most pathetically and meekly, “Please allow me to continue my studies and teachings as before, like a small and insignificant seminarian, under the wise shadow of your exalted leadership.” [16]

The Collusion of the Clerics and the Government
At the conclusion of Ramadan 1334 [May 1955], the most distinguished of the clerics, the religious leaders, the renowned preachers and promoters [of Shi‘ism] from pulpits, along with a representative of Ayatollah Borujerdi gathered in the residence of Ayatollah Khonsari. After discussions and consultations, the participants composed a communication addressed to “the presence of his majesty the king”, requesting urgent and ultimate disposal of the Baha’is of Iran. In this letter, the Muslim clerics stated at length their submission and fidelity before the Throne and pleaded with the Shah to conclude the situation of Baha’is in much the same brutal and bloody way that he had eliminated the members of the Tudeh Party, insisting that delay would only prolong the inevitable.

The struggle to cleanse Iran of the presence of “the wayward and misguided sect of Baha’i” gradually turned into an anti-Western and anti-American struggle and in the course of several decades ultimately became the struggle to topple the Pahlavi Dynasty in Iran.

The presence of the two highest-ranking military chiefs at the destruction of the Baha’i Center in Tehran was a clear sign of the Shah’s support, and his government encouragement, of persecution and suppression of Baha’is – an act devoid of foresight and intended to appease the high-ranking clerics.

The mullas’ activities against Baha’is were not only to protect “the foundation of the luminous religion of Islam”; it was also the lever by which the clerical establishment sought to demonstrate their power and influence to the government and people alike.

Contrary to the common belief among people – and supported by the unwise comments of the Tudeh Party – it was the clerical establishment that portrayed Sha’ban Khan Ja’fari as “tajbakhsh” [bestower of the crown]. However, the truth was something else. That is, whenever social reforms intersected with the clerics’ interest, the clerical establishment would remind the Shah and his government that he wore the crown and sat on the throne solely because of clerical exertions during the 28 Mordad coup d'état.

In letters of Ayatollah Borujerdi, communications or speeches of Ayatollah Khomeini prior to 15 Khurdad [Islamic Revolution], and among the memoirs of various clerics that presently are being published by the Islamic regime in Iran, very often we see that the Shah was warned that he owed his throne to the “militant clerics” and their efforts against Dr. Mossadegh’s government. In some letters, we note that they caution the Shah that if he were to undertake any act that would displease the clerics or jurists, they had the power and ability to remove him from the throne.[17]

Recollections of Dr. Hairi-Yazdi
Ayatollah Abdolkarim Hairi-Yazdi was an object of emulation of the Shi‘as and the founder of the religious school in Qum. His son, Dr. Mehdi Hairi-Yazdi studied in Qum and later continued his advanced studies in western philosophy in England, the United States and Canada. He remained in the west continuing to teach and research in philosophy. Dr. Habib Ladjevardi has captured Dr. Mehdi Hairi-Yazdi’s memoirs as part of Harvard University’s “Iranian Oral History Project”. Some of these memoirs relate to events after the 28 Mordad coup, the role of clerics, the fall of Dr. Mossadegh, and the collusion of the Shah with the clerics in running the country. They are most illuminating in understanding the evolution of modern politics and religion in Iran.

Regarding the issue of velayat-e faqih [the rule of religious jurists], Dr. Mehdi Hairi-Yazdi states, “The way [the Islamic Republic] has understood this has no basis whatsoever. At least I have not been able to find any evidence in logic, sacred books or traditions to support this notion.”

Hairi-Yazdi had a close relationship with Ayatollah Borujerdi and relates:

On religious matters, Borujerdi would instruct the regime what to do, and government would follow his wishes. For instance, he did not approve of Dr. Mossadegh. However, when the Shah returned from Italy, Borujerdi approved him.

Dr. Mossadegh showed him great respect, to the point that he used his position to pass a special legislation for Borujerdi which would result in immediate closure of any newspaper that insulted the person of the “object of emulation”. This law was passed solely for Borujerdi. It even caused annoyance to Ayatollah Kashani. In fact, one of the reasons that Kashani disassociated himself from Dr. Mossadegh was this very legislation and the feeling that Dr. Mossadegh had sided with Borujerdi.

Dr. Hairi-Yazdi relates a recollection of Ayatollah Mir Siyyid Muhammad Behbahani which is most interesting and instructive. According to this recollection, Ayatollah Behbahani had knowledge of 28 Mordad coup d'état before it took place. He states, “On the morning of 28 Mordad, the sun had not risen, when the phone rang.” The call was from the residence of Ayatollah Behbahani with the instruction that he should immediately come before the Ayatollah for “an urgent matter.” Hairi-Yazdi quickly went to Behbahani’s home and was told by the Ayatollah:

This morning you should leave for Qum. Go before Borujerdi and convey to him on my behalf, “Master, the country is on the verge of dismemberment. Soon it will be ruined because there is talk of forming a republic. The Shah has left and any day now, the country will plummet into chaos and disorder. Certainly, the nation would fall onto the other side of the Iron Curtain. No name will remain of religion; no name of him [Borujerdi]; no mention of religious guidance; no memory of principles of the faith. The country will become communist. He should devise a plan. Perhaps a communication, or a ruling, so that people would be aware of the truth of matters and would come and oppose the Tudehs.

In short, do not allow the country to become communist.

Hairi-Yazdi continues, “I should mention that the same way that he considered Baha’is disruptors of security and a threat to the country’s independence, Ayatollah Borujerdi also viewed the Tudeh Party with the same eye. That is, he combated the Baha’is the same way he combated the Tudeh.

A question was asked of Dr. Hairi-Yazdi regarding Ayatollah Borujerdi’s “intense and open battles against Baha’is after 28 Mordad.” Dr. Hairi-Yazdi responded:

At that time, Khomeini was one of the confidants of Borujerdi. In fact, it was widely acknowledged that he was Borujirdi’s foreign minister. This was at a time when he had not, as yet, come to blows with Borujerdi.

At least on one occasion during that incident, Khomeini went to the court and met with the Shah on Borujerdi’s behalf. After this meeting, I myself heard from him explain, “Yes, I went as the emissary of Borujerdi and met with the Shah.” In telling this, Khomeini seemed very joyous and robust.

Khomeini continued relating for me, “I said to his majesty, ‘The late Shah, your majesty’s father, had this wayward group [Baha’is] completely reduced and immobilized. And now the people of Iran expect the same from you.’”

This is exactly what Khomeini related for me.

Borujerdi had connived with the Shah that a large number of these people [Baha’is] would be proscribed. They had agreed to close their Haziratu’l-Quds, which was their propagation center located on Hafez Street. At that time, they had agreed on this plan – a plan in which the Shah himself was involved. They instructed Falsafi to ascend the pulpit in Ramadan in Masjed Shah and prepare people for this. And they accomplished their plan.[18]

For the sake of pleasing the mullas, the Shah sacrificed an innocent religious minority, when in reality, every person, young and old, in Iran knew that the Baha’is had no opposition to the parliamentary government and were not enemies of the state.

After that, once more in order to secure the mullas’ pleasure, SAVAK created the Hojjatiyeh Society for combating Baha’is. This Society had many branches throughout Iran under SAVAK’s supervision,[19] engaged in religious activities, and training in spying methods, and causing uproar and unrest among religious minorities, particularly among Baha’is. Although the Hojjatiyeh Society was founded with the Shah’s consent, gradually and unanticipated by its founders, it became a recruiting grounds for the “Islamic Coalition Societies” and the Mujahidin Khalq organization.

[1] Da’iy Jan Napoleon is a masterpiece of socio-political satire by the renowned satirist Iraj Pezeshkzad. [In the course of this entertaining and fascinating novel, which later was made into a popular play, Pezeshkzad discloses the Iranian tendency to think that behind every misfortune is the hand of foreigners, particularly the British. For a discussion of the Iranian preoccupation with conspiracy, see Moojan Momen, “Conspiracy Theories and Forgeries: The Baha'i Community of Iran and the Construction of an Internal Enemy”, presented in the proceedings of Sixth Biennial Conference of Iranian Studies, August 2006. Translator]

[2] Prince Dimitri Dolgorukov [Dolgorouki] was the Russian Ambassador to Iran during 1845-54. The book, Memoirs of Kinyaz Dolgorouki, a creation of the troubled mind of Ali Javaher-Kalam, endeavors to connect the Babi and Baha’i movements to Tsarist Russia. At first, this book attracted considerable attention in Iran, but soon the fact that it was a mere forgery was thoroughly established by historians and religious researchers. In a well-regarded article, Professor Abbas Iqbal Ashtiyani proved these memoirs to be a forgery created by troublemakers; (Yadegar Journal, Year 5, numbers 8 and 9). Professor Mujtaba-Minui considers these memoirs to be a forgery and the forger to be an Iranian; (Rahnami Kitab Journal, Year 6, numbers 1 and 2). Similarly, refer to Amir Kabir va Iran [Amir Kabir and Iran], by Fereydoun Adamiyat.

[3] [Astan Quds Razavi is responsible for maintenance and supervision of the Sacred Shrine of Imam Reza in Mashhad, which has a strong publishing arm, as well as administering many religious schools and endowments. Translator]

[4] [This is a reference to the 28 Mordad 1332 (19 August 1953) coup against the government of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967), who was an elected prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. Mossadegh was a nationalist, and passionately opposed foreign intervention in Iran. He was also the architect of the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which was dominated and exploited by the British through the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (today known as British Petroleum). Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi removed him from power in a CIA orchestrated coup, supported and funded by the British and the U.S. governments. Translator]

[5] Khaterat va Mubarezat Hujjatu’l-Islam Falsafi [Memories and Struggles of Hujjatu’l-Islam Falsafi], published by Markaz Asnad Inqelab Islami, 4th printing, pages 200ff. In the same book, various documents and accounts are found that illustrate how the mullas and political figures worked hand-in-hand against the Baha’i community and strove to suppress and harm them. They even entertained the adoption of a parliamentary measure that would make it illegal to be a Baha’i. These documents clearly prove that the Shah and his appointed prime minister, Asadu’llah Alam, were complete partners in these undertakings. In the book, A’iyn Bahá’í Yik Nihzat Siasiy Nist [The Bahá’í Faith is not a Political Movement], published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of Germany, after proving that the Baha’i Faith has no political objective, the various objections raised by the leaders of the Islamic Republic are addressed and answered. The author or the authors of this book, in particular, have noted the manifold problems that the Baha’is had with the government during Reza Shah’s reign. In 1320 [1941], a number of Baha’is of Yazd, on the charge of being Baha’i, were imprisoned. In 1322 [1943], all local Baha’i centers in various cities were confiscated and some were destroyed. In 1325 [1946], a number of Baha’is were killed in Kashan and Shahrud, and the perpetrators were never arrested. In 1330 [1951], a jihad [religious warfare] against Baha’is was proclaimed and they were accused of collaboration with the communists. After Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi’s sermons in 1334 [1955], Baha’is were persecuted throughout Iran and a number of them were killed. In 1335 [1956], the Baha’is complained to the United Nations about these persecutions and discriminations. From 1956 until 1963, Baha’i gatherings were proclaimed unlawful by the government. Finally, in September 1357 [1978], SAVAK organized anti-Baha’i riots in Shiraz aiming at diverting the Revolution and turning it into an uprising against the Baha’is. Over 300 Baha’i homes were plundered and then set on fire. Ayatollah Khomeini in Paris spoke of this incident and pointed out its true character.

[6] Yadvareh Yek Bacheh Qafqaz [Memoirs of a Lad from Caucasus], written by General Muhammad Ayarmalu, first printing, Germany, pages 213-214.

[7] Marja’iyat dar ‘Arsih Ijtima’ va Siyasat [Authority in Society and Politics], p. 498.

[8] [Meaning, Baha’is. Translator]

[9] Meaning the Shah, the Prime Minister and members of the national parliament.

[10] Zaban Guyai-e Islam: Hujjatu’l-Islam Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi [The Eloquent Tongue of Islam: Hujjatu’l-Islam Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi], published by Markaz Barrasi Asnad Tarikhi-e Vezarat Ittella’at, vol. 9.

[11] [Baha’i Center in Tehran.]

[12] For more details, see Iran-Nameh, a journal of Iranian Studies, published in America, the special issue devoted to religious minorities of Iran.

[13] Through the illegal exertions of Ayatollah Borujerdi and the collusion of the government, the murderer was freed.

[14] Khaterat Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri [Memoirs of Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri], pages 94-96.

[15] He is referring to treason against the agents of SAVAMA and VEVAK. [SAVAMA is short of Sazman-e Ettela’at va Amniat-e Melli-e Iran, which was the successor of the Shah’s secret police, SAVAK. Later, SAVAMA was transformed into Vezarat-e Ettela’at va Amniat-e Keshvar, or VEVAK for short. Translator.]

[16] Khaterat Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri [Memoirs of Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri], pages 539-540.

[17] Marja’iyat dar ‘Arsih Ijtima’ va Siyasat [Authority in Society and Politics], Tehran, Autumn 1379 [2000]. In this book, we encounter many documents discussing the relationship between the Shah and his governments with various high-ranking clerics such as, Ayatollah Mirza Muhammad-Husayn Na’ini, Haji Siyyid Abu’l-Hasan Isfahani, Haji Aqa Husayn Qumi, Haji Shaykh Abdu’l-Karim Ha’iri Yazdi, and Haji Aqa Husayn Borujerdi. Indeed these documents would be most illuminating for any researcher. Alas, citing all these documents would prolong this brief essay.

[18] Khatirat Dr. Mehdi Hairi Yazdi, Iran Oral History Project, by Dr. Habib Hadjevardi; published by Nader, Tehran, 1382, pages 43-59.

[19] After the Islamic Revolution, a number of SAVAK’s secret documents were discovered. Mujadih Newspaper, in its 9 June 1980 issue, printed a facsimile of a document related to the year 1350 [1971], which is illuminating: “Regarding Anjuman Tablighat Islami [Society for the Promotion of Islam]. The supervisor of Anjuman Islami in the central office [Tehran?] has requested SAVAK to provide necessary aid in combating Baha’is scientifically and intellectually. In sharing this request of the Anjuman Islami with your contacts among known elements in the region, kindly emphasize that their activities should not cause provocation or interference. In simpler terms, while maintaining public order, Anjuman Tablighat Islami is permitted to use SAVAK’s assistance to combat the Baha’is.” The chief of SAVAK’s Third Department signed this document. Also, Subh-e Azadegan Newspaper, in its Bahman 1360 [February 1982] issue, in an article under the title “A Glance at the Anjuman Hojjatiyeh”, described at length the deep relationship between SAVAK and Anjuman Hojjatiyeh. For a more detailed discussion of the relationship between SAVAK and Anjuman Hojjatiyeh, see Hizb Qa’idin Zaman [The Party of Founders of Time], a title of Anjuman Hojjatiyeh, by ‘Amadu’d-Din Baghi.



The Rising Tide: Iranians In defense of the Bahais

by faryarm on

Dr Choubine's writings is but one well researched account of  the plight of the Bahais in their native land. Every Day there more unbiased articles  appearing on the internet written by non Bahai blogs in response to the Regime's anti Bahai Propaganda and in defense of the historic injustice.

You call "Shahram Choubin" a "British Stooge"..? If you mean Dr Bahram Choubine...?

How pathetic and baseless an accusation,of this long and well respected scholar who has produced an unbiased and  well documented account of events in Iran !

Which part of his account can you reject? and on what basis can you possibly call him a stooge...Alas people everywhere are realising that not ONE of your accusations has  EVER HAD A LEG TO STAND ON !


the Day of Judgement and the Great Day of Resurrection;

by Seagull (not verified) on

Dear X-Pasdar, I read all the posts, not just yours. And the only thing that makes me curious is, why some people waste their time in disputes if they have no intention to consider the truth! And I suppose that has to do something with Resurrection. For in this day mans heart is prompted by the holy ghost to seek nothing but the Truth.

Now regarding the fulfillment questions, it does not take much to understand, (purity of motive is the way of God) if one is willing and is a receptive soul otherwise it will be impossible task to convince or understand. As it is evident from the fact that most of the people on the planet did not recognize or denied either Moses, Christ, Mohammad or any other prophet for the same reasons.

Here is regarding the Day of resurrection, and that should suffice with the Grace of God;
If one understand this then they will have found the ways of the spirit.

"Attainment unto such presence is possible only in the Day of Resurrection, which is the Day of the rise of God Himself through His all-embracing Revelation".
"Although the Day of Resurrection was ushered in through the Revelation of Muhammad, although His light and tokens had encompassed the earth and all that is therein, yet that people derided Him, gave themselves up to those idols which the divines of that age, in their vain and idle fancy, had conceived, and deprived themselves of the light of heavenly grace and of the showers of divine mercy.

Such things have come to pass in the days of every Manifestation of God. Even as Jesus said: "Ye must be born again."[1] Again He saith: "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit."[2] The purport of these words is that whosoever in every dispensation is born of the Spirit and is quickened by the breath of the Manifestation of Holiness, he verily is of those that have attained unto "life" and "resurrection" and have entered into the "paradise" of the love of God. And whosoever is not of them, is condemned to "death" and "deprivation," to the "fire" of unbelief, and to the "wrath" of God. In all the scriptures, the books and chronicles, the sentence of death, of fire, of blindness, of want of understanding and hearing, hath been pronounced against those whose lips have tasted not the ethereal cup of true knowledge, and whose hearts have been deprived of the grace of the holy Spirit in their day".  
Good luck X.


The Pahlavis were the worst to the Bahai people

by Arastoo Tehrani (not verified) on

The Pahlavis were very evil. They persecuted the Bahais. They should be ashamed of themselves. I ask Reza Pahlavi to make a formal apology for the evil deeds that his father and grandfather committed against the great Bahai people.


Arabic Bahai Forums

by arabic_bahai (not verified) on


x-pasdar, I need your opinion

by Anonymous4now (not verified) on

This question may seem irrelevant to this discussion, but it may turn out to be an eye opening experience for the readers, here.

First are you really an x-pasdar? And if you are, have you heard of Hossein Broojerdi and Ja'far Shafie'zadeh? Each claims to have been an x-pasdar and they have both written their confessions called "poshteh pardehayeh Enghelabeh eslami". Hossein Broojerdi's version can be downloaded here:


Obviously since the stories they tell are from behind the scenes, I have no way of corroborating them, so I want to find out if you have read them and if they match or come close to your own experience, as an x-pasdar. The one thing that makes them, eerily real for me, is that each presents a list of those to be popped off, by each of them, at the end of their book, and the lists are different since they are assigned to different people. In the Shafie'zadeh’s list my fathers name appears and in both lists several of my father’s friends’ names appear. My father was interrogated (verbally) at Evin several times because he was an x-military officer, but was also a doctor which meant he had nothing to do with policy making, at least at the level they were interested in. But here is the kicker; it would appear that either they could pin something on people and execute them or assign them to death squads to be popped off, vigilantly style.

There are so many eye opening things they talk about that the readers should discover for themselves.

Any way I wanted your opinion on the books, if you have read them, or whether you have heard of these x-pasdars at all? I realize you may be from a different generation of pasdars than them, but it still helps to know, if you can relate to their experience.


To X-pasdar,look at your last posting closely !

by Tahirih (not verified) on

My friend x-pasdar look at your last posting I was laughing when I saw it you are promoting Bahai faith and you even do not know it.Thank you!

I was working the last couple of days and when I came back and saw your postings I said alas ,they say it ,it is in front of them ,but they do not "see it"
My hope is that you really think to yourself and what you are saying.
-Don't you think that we all went and are going through period of darkness in Iran with all these corruption and backward laws like stoning of women?
-you say justice would be the focous of the promised one,Did you know that unity and justice are the first and formost teachings of Bahaullah?
I think if you pray for a few days and ask God for guidance and really make your heart pure ,then read bahaullah's book of cetitude,you will see it.
have you ever without, prejudice read his writings?
You know that all the early Bahai's were stunch and devoted Muslims who saw the truth!
with hope of your enlightenment,



by Mona 19 (not verified) on

My Dear fellow Iranian:

I'm not trying to win anything.
I'm sharing a message with you, the rest is up to you to accept or reject it.
It's my gift to you, you can throw it out or open it to see what it's there for you.

as I told you my background is Shiie Muslem.
my grandma thought me Quran since I was five yrs old. So I can provide you with more Sureh from Holy Quran and Hadith, but...

""""No man shall attain the shores of the ocean of true understanding except he be detached from all that is in heaven and on earth.""""

4 now
Good day


You can find answer .....

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude)


You can find answer to these Questions.

# The Day of Resurrection. Is there to be corporeal resurrection? The world is replete with injustice. How are the just to be requited and the unjust punished?

# The twelfth Imám was born at a certain time and lives on. There are traditions, all supporting the belief. How can this be explained?

# Interpretation of the holy texts. This Cause does not seem to conform to the beliefs held throughout the years. One cannot ignore the literal meaning of the holy texts and scripture. How can this be explained?

# Certain events, according to the traditions that have come down from the Imáms, must occur at the advent of the Qa'im. Some of these are mentioned. But none of these has happened. How can this be explained?"


Completion of Religion

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

"This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion."
- Qur'an 5:3

This verse was revealed when the Prophet was on His way back from His last pilgrimage to Mecca (Hujjatu'l Wida'). It is said to be the last verse of the Qur'an to be revealed. It was later included in Suratu'l Ma'ideh (chapter 5) which was originally revealed around the year six or seven AH.

This verse has been referred to as complementary to verse 33:40 which describes Muhammad as being the "Seal of the prophets", in that the two verses support the notion that Islam is the final religion. Verse 33:40 has been addressed in other pages on this site.

As we look at the topic of the completion of religion in the light of the whole Qur'an, we find that religion is described as being completed, in quite a few verses (in addition to verse 5:3).

For instance, we find that God's favor was completed at the time of Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph:

And thus will your Lord choose you and teach you the interpretation of sayings and make His favor complete to you and to the children of Jacob, as He made it complete before to your fathers, Abraham and Isaac; surely your Lord is knowing, wise.
- Qur'an 12:6

We also find that God completed His favor through Moses:

Moreover, We gave Moses the Book, completing (Our favor) to those who would do right, and explaining all things in detail,- and a guide and a mercy, that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord.
- Qur'an 6:154

According to the Qur'an, the completion of the favor is also conditional upon the individual's success in obeying and fearing God:

And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you are turn your face towards it, so that people shall have no accusation against you, except such of them as are unjust; so do not fear them, and fear Me, that I may complete My favor on you and that you may walk on the right course.
- Qur'an 2:150

Some argue however, that while "completion" of the favor may not be unique to Muslims, "perfection" of the religion is.


The End of the World

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

As to the issue of the calamitous destruction of the earth and the end of the world, the falling of the stars, and the fires and the floods; we find that there are many verses which have lead to the common belief that the physical world would be destroyed as the believers are taken to live in heaven for eternity, and the ungodly, in hell.

However, the need arises to reconcile this belief, with verses which may indicate that, rather than the destruction of this earth, there will be a transformation, and that what we picture as living in paradise or in hell, may not of a necessity have to do with the physical destruction of the earth :

[14:48] : "One day the earth will be changed to a different earth, and so will be the heavens, and (men) will be marshalled forth, before Allah, the One, the Irresistible; .."

[11:104-7]: "..The day it arrives, no soul shall speak except by His leave: of those (gathered) some will be wretched and some will be blessed. Those who are wretched shall be in the Fire: There will be for them therein (nothing but) the heaving of sighs and sobs: They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as thy Lord willeth: for thy Lord is the (sure) accomplisher of what He planneth."

[39:73-4] : "And those who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the Garden in troops till, when they reach it, and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Peace be unto you! Ye are good, so enter ye (the Garden of delight), to dwell therein; They say: Praise be to Allah, Who hath fulfilled His promise unto us and hath made us inherit the land* (al-ardh), sojourning in the Garden where we will! So bounteous is the wage of workers."

* the word translated here as land (al-ardh), also can mean "the earth" in Arabic. In the Bible also we read that "the meek shall inherit the earth" (in the latter days).

[39:69] : "And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged."


The second comin is still unfulfilled

by x-pasdar (not verified) on

The universal Muslim belief is that the appearance of the expected Mahadi will be associated with:

These concepts of the Reappearance of Imam Mahdi are extremely clear, constructive and inspiring. They have many features in common with the Christian and Hebrew traditions such as:

(a) a period of life in darkness and negligence when the Truth is hidden;

(b) an end to this period and the Advent of the Second Coming;

(c) the Day of Judgement and the Great Day of Resurrection;

(d) the beginning of a new cycle when humankind lives according to its celestial purpose.

None of the last three parts are fulfilled yet. I am afaraid you cannot win the argument of the last prophet. According to Islamic belief:

"Before the end of time he will appear again on earth to bring equity and justice and to fill it with peace after it has been torn by war and injustice". If Bahaullah were the true Mahdi, why the war and injustice increased since his appearance instead of the opposite?


Rejection of the New Religion

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

"Do men think when they say `We believe' they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?"
- Qur'an 29:2

It has always been the wont of people to reject the new Messengers of God, and the Religions they bring. This has happened to every Messenger:
"Ah! Alas for (My) Servants! There comes not a messenger to them but they mock him!"
- Qur'an 36:30

"But if they reject you, so indeed were rejected before you apostles who came with clear arguments and scriptures and the illuminating book."
- Qur'an 3:184

".. and every nation purposed to seize their Messenger and argued falsely, (thinking) thereby to refute the Truth. "
- Qur'an 40:5

It should be worthwhile to contemplate on the reasons why this has been the case, notwithstanding the clear evidence presented by the Messengers, and notwithstanding the fact that in most cases, the followers of the earlier religions, were fully expecting the coming of the new Messenger, and were ardently praying to God to hasten His advent.

When we study the sacred books of all religions, and specially the Qur'an (and also to some extent the history books), we begin to see patterns and find clues to the reasons for such rejection and opposition. Hopefully, becoming aware of these reasons, and understanding them, would help us avoid making the same mistakes, which we condemned the generations of old for.



Why I became a Bahai?

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

For a Baha'i with Muslim background, Baha'ullah fulfills the promise of the Quran for the "Day of God" and the "Great Announcement," when "God" will come down "overshadowed with clouds."
I see in the dramatic events of the Faith the fulfillment of many traditional statements of Prophet Muhammad.

I not only accept Abraham, Krishna, Zoroaster, Moses, Buddha, Jesus, and Muhammad as divine Messengers; but also I accept the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh as the most recent messengers from God.

The following verses need no comment or introduction, if you are a true believer,X-pasdar.

"O ye who believe! If a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done."
- Qur'an 49:6

"A believer, a man from among the people of Pharaoh, who had concealed his faith, said: "Will ye slay a man because he says, 'My Lord is Allah'?- when he has indeed come to you with Clear (Signs) from your Lord? and if he be a liar, on him is (the sin of) his lie: but, if he is telling the Truth, then will fall on you something of the (calamity) of which he warns you: Truly Allah guides not one who transgresses and lies!"
- Qur'an 40:28

"and say not to any one who offers you a salutation: 'Thou art none of a believer!'"
- Qur'an 4:94

With Loving Greetings,


Seagull and Mona

by x-pasdar (not verified) on

First Seagull:

Good to see that I made you curious enough to read my posts on other threads. History and experience are not one and the same. If that was the case then we should have no election on the basis of candidates' past experiences. There is a contemporary history and there is a non-contemporary history and you are mixing them up. Name one serious strategic decision made on the basis of a historic trend that has paid off or worked according to plans. It all nice to say we must learn from history but I can bring you many more notable quotations that dismiss this idea.

And as for Mona:


This is precisely why no matter what your adopted faith's instructors tell you, you will blindly accept them as facts and follow them. Why didn't you convert to Christian faith? What did'nt Christiany give you that Bahaiism did? Did you research Christianity as much as you researched Bahaiism? I am not trying to persuade you to convert to any faith but please don't tell me that Bahaiis accept that other faiths can save the mankind too. I know of a number of your leaders and ALL have a strong bleif in the excusivity of their faith - same as Muslims, Jews and ,yes, Christians. We need to beleive in somthing but not at the expense of excluding other beleifs.


Baha'is are Persecuted in Iran

by Dr. Don Addison (not verified) on

I am so glad to see that you are telling the public about the terrible treatment of Baha'is in Iran. I teach anthropology and I have directed my students to read this article. Please keep telling the public at large that the treatment of the Baha'is in Iran is clearly at odds with all international concepts of human rights. I'm an American Indian from a Christian religious background. When I became Baha'i, I accepted Muhammad as an authentic Prophet of God. This means something significant and speaks volumes of the value and decency of the Baha'i Faith. Please keep up the "heat" so that the Iranian government KNOWS that their treatment of Baha'is is being monitored CLOSELY around the world. Dr. Don Addison


History is a myth that men agree to believe.

by Seagull (not verified) on

x-pasdar at some point as a reformist you need to be more forthcoming and less of a naysayer and a fault finder.
You quote all these peoples view of history, who are history themselves now, which is somewhat ironic, you use history to deny history.
But what is more ironic is that you discard history and then use it to recommend a presidential candidate at another post, because his history (record) is clean and his record (his history) has shown that he can make favorable things happen!
History is not just an account of the bygone, it is experience and knowledge, it is the science of events and outcomes... If Napoleon had any respect for this science he would have made better choices!!!

"Just as the rays of the phenomenal sun are infinite, likewise the rays of the sun of reality are infinite. The following summary contains but a few of the rays which may be likened unto great principles shining into the consciousness of man.

1. The first is the independent investigation of reality.

2. The second is the banishment of all prejudice.

3. The third is the oneness of the world of humanity.

4. The fourth is the oneness of the foundation of all religions.

5. The fifth is the unity of science and religion.

6. The sixth is the universal auxiliary language.

7. The seventh is universal education.

8. The eighth is the equality of the sexes.

9. The ninth is the parliament of man.

10. The tenth is universal peace." 



by Mona 19 (not verified) on

I'm not getting tired to explain my faith and what I believe to other seekers.
I'm in LOVE with my faith.
I grow up in Muslim family and practiced Islam, I became a Baha'i couple yrs ago.
I love my family dearly.
I respect and love others no matter what religion/believe or race they have.


""Let your heart burn with loving kindness for all who cross your path""



by Mona 19 (not verified) on

Although in former centuries and times this subject received some measure of mention and consideration, it has now become the paramount issue and question in the religious and political conditions of the world.

History shows that throughout the past there have been continual warfare and strife among the various nations, peoples and sects, but now.... in this century of illumination, hearts are inclined toward agreement and fellowship and minds are thoughtful upon the question of the unification of mankind.



by Another Anonymous (not verified) on

I don't know much about bahai, but ALL religions are self-righteous; otherwise they would be self-defeating. ALL religions believe in themselves. In Christianity, you CANNOT go to heaven without accepting Christ as son of god and your savior. The same is true with islam; even shias are not accepted by sunnis as true believers. Same is true of Judism, they consider themselves chosen people of god. SO, singling out bahais is only due to prejudice and not because they are any worse than any other religion.


Only .....

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

The accusation:
""""only Baha'i are promised to go to paradise and the rest are misguided infidels who will burn in hell."""

The reality:
Paradise is the joy of knowing and loving God, as revealed through His Manifestation, thereby attaining to the utmost perfection of which one is capable, and, after death, obtaining entrance to the Kingdom of God and the life everlasting.

Hell is simply deprivation of that knowledge of God with consequent failure to attain divine perfection, and loss of the Eternal Favor.



And as for those who

by x-pasdar (not verified) on

And as for those who lectured me on the unity of Bahaiism, I say, You are right! Bahaii, and most other religions or cults, want to have all mankind united as long as they are united under their faith!! There are two versions of Bahaii faith:

(1) for the uninitiated and those who are still doubtful whether to join this faith and
(2) for the initiated and those who have already commited themselves to be a Bahaii.

In version (1) all humans are equal and all faiths are respectaed. In version (2) only Bahaiis are promised to go to paradise and the rest are misguided infidels who will burn in hell. Let me make it absolutely clear that nothing, I repeat nothing should justify cruelty of any kind from one man to another because of differences in color or creed BUT the moment one believer says that my faith is the ONLY way to eternal salvations and all others are wrong, they are asking for blood to be spilt.


Did you say History?

by x-pasdar (not verified) on

Let me tell you what others think of it. Here is a little sample for your education:

George Bernard Shaw:
We learn from history that we learn nothing from history.

History is a useless heap of facts.
Lord Chesterfield

Happy people have no history.
Leo Tolstoy

People are trapped in history, and history is trapped in them.
James Baldwin


History is a myth that men agree to believe.

DID YOU HAVE ENOUGH? So, don't talk to me about history.


X-Pasdar, Salvation is a

by Seagull (not verified) on

X-Pasdar, Salvation is a particular and exclusive claim in any religion.
You ask a Jewish, Christian, Moslem, Buddist, Zoroastrian, you will hear that sentiment.
That is the reason Moslems attacked Iran, and were spreading Islam all the way to the crusaders war. They were bringing salvation, the Islamic brand.
However, as it is evident, despite the exclusive claim to salvation, all religions have managed to respect each other and leave in peace. They do not spread their kind of salvation with sword or force, intimidation or war. They have teachers, missionaries, and people with practical good will.
Your argument against Bahais and their way of salvation simply ignores religious and historical facts.


We have to learn history to prevent it from repeating itself.

by Seagull (not verified) on

Anonymous4now, Very well said
I could not agree with you more.
I was just making a reference to the guy who was proud of the president of Iran snubbing the question of Bahais and walking away from it.
To me that was an act of intolerance instead of responding to a legitimate question!
We should not, like you mention worry about how people will react to history or truth, we just hope that the lessons in them dont go unheeded.
Thank you for your clarification.


The Bahá’í Faith and Other Religions

by Mona 19 (not verified) on

All divine Revelations come from the same Source; thus, the religions identified with them are in essence one. They differ in the measure of their teachings and particularly in their social laws and principles, appropriate to the times in which they appeared.

The successive divine Revelations over the centuries have provided the spiritual force and laws for the advancement of civilization. Abraham, Krishna, Zoroaster, Moses, Buddha, Jesus, and Muhammad were all divine Messengers; the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh are the most recent.

The coming of Bahá’u’lláh represents the fulfillment of this centuries’ long process of progressive revelation and of the expectations inspired by previous divine Messengers for the ultimate unity of peoples and peace among nations.

P.S. To:x-pasdar

The theme of UNITY runs throughout Bahá’u’lláh’s writings: “The tabernacle of unity hath been raised; regard ye not one another as strangers.”

“Consort with the followers of all religions in a spirit of friendliness and fellowship.”

“Ye are the fruits of one tree, and the leaves of one branch."

Best Wishes,


To X-pasdar

by HAJI - ANTI PASDAR (not verified) on

if you watched Marmoolak (lizard) DVD, you know your answer AZIZI BARADAR

there are lots of path to God,
even for you AZIZE BARADAR

boru mastete bokhor,



The trouble with the Bahais

by x-pasdar (not verified) on

As a reformed Islamist, I must say that Bahaiis are fine in practice but not in principle. They are their own worst enemies. Why? Because you ask any Bahaii if other faiths and religious are also worthy being considered as a possible path to salvation and they would give you an emphatic NO in reply. In other words they automatically hold ALL other faiths in contempt and declared an undeclared war on them. Now, do you really expect other faiths have any respect for this man-made cult? By the way, Shahram Choubin is an old hand and well established British stooge. No wonder he has to come to the defense of his co-workewrs!!


uncle Ben

by Another Anonymous (not verified) on

Thanks. We won't be able to save iran until we respect ALL iranians. It is IRI stategy to divide us to be able to rule iran. Remember divide and conquer, learnt from brits.

As for bahai's, I've had contact with them and they are "at least" as good as the rest of us. I saw a bahai friend of mine's father imprisoned by IRI for 6 years right after revolution, then beaten to death on the street nearly a month after he was finally released. I was very upset and ashamed to see that done in the name of islam and allah.



by Anonymous4now (not verified) on

I am not sure I understand what you are saying, but if you think studying history is going to instill hate in us then, we must overcome the urge. It is not the writer’s responsibility, nor should it be, to make it sanitized and politically correct. We have to learn history to prevent it from repeating itself.


To ignorant "ahmadinejad ha ha":

by Tahirih (not verified) on

Just read it and send it to your master:

The first duty prescribed by God for His servants is the recognition of Him Who is the Dayspring of His Revelation and the Fountain of His laws, Who representeth the Godhead in both the Kingdom of His Cause and the world of creation. Whoso achieveth this duty hath attained unto all good; and whoso is deprived thereof hath gone astray!